phosfato.qa.digitalhub.com.br/57.php That robot managed to score 57 in the standard deviation score, which is way above ordinary people. Most of what the white-collar workers are doing today is mainly routine work that does not require too much creativity and may be replaced by robots. On the other hand, the people that might not have excelled in school under the current education system have great opportunities. They may not have been great at accumulating knowledge for examinations or processing information, but they might excel in areas that AI and robots are weak in such as those requiring human aspects or even communication skills.
What measures including education and training are needed in order for Japanese workers to successfully compete at the international level? SO: This should be viewed as an influence of internet society as well as AI. Since there are no borders in the internet society, information circulates freely across the globe. Of course, physical transfer of goods requires moving across borders, but as information gains importance in a more digitalized industrial society, barriers of borders become less significant. Moreover, development of automatic translation will reduce the language barriers enabling companies to hire people without consideration for borders.
Japanese people can also do business with companies from across the world without language barriers. People that had ability to deliver service but could not speak good English can be hired by American or British firms, or do business with them as self-employed workers. It may seem that Japanese workers will be exposed to an increased international competition, but that is not necessarily the case. There may be business opportunities in the future society that you would not have imagined before. For example, many people are using smartphones to start small businesses, which is quite different from business trend 10 years ago.
Even Toyota feels the need to change, and they may not manufacture cars in the future. Thus, if you compete doing what everybody else is doing, then that might be difficult, but there will be various new possibilities and business opportunities. In order to be well prepared, you need to think about what you are good at. For example, you can think about what you are good at, and see if that might be good business using the smartphone. Support to self-employed workers From stability of employment to stability of career ILO: It was pointed out during the forum that in the face of the expected expansion in self-employment work, it will be critical to consider support to self-employed workers in addition to the traditional concept of labour law and social security that was developed to protect workers.
What kinds of institutions and policies are needed? SO: Self-employment workers, without an element of dependency, is not covered by labour law. Labour law was developed for protection of workers working in dependent conditions. By definition, self-employed workers would not be working in the condition of personal subordination, while they may be economically dependent. Thus, there is no policy framework focusing on protection of self-employed workers as they are deemed to take individual responsibilities.
However, I believe there is a need to examine this. In fact, I think the need to protect dependent workers only partially explains the origin of labour law. The other half is because employers during industrial revolution realized that in order to sustain industrial and economic growth, sustainable labour was required. Sustainable labour in turn required healthy labour, and occupational health and safety had to be improved.
Similarly, as self-employment workers increase to take 50 or 60 percent of labour market towards the future, their share of labour market will be enormous. If the market is not safe and healthy for them, then that will be disadvantageous for the economy as a whole. With this logic, if self-employment workers greatly increase, the government needs to be engaged to create good working conditions for them. From this perspective, there are three areas that the government can look into.
Pricecartel Logicalthinking Japanese Edition is the best ebook you need. You can get any ebooks you wanted like Pricecartel Logicalthinking Japanese Edition . Pricecartel logicalthinking japanese edition. Inspirational quotes for today s busy workplace must read essential inspirational quotes book 3. Crazy ball player.
First is to create clear rules upon signing a contract so that self-employed workers are reassured when they sign contracts. This is especially so as traditionally, Japanese business culture has not been as contract-oriented. There needs to be rules for disclosure of contract terms, and unfair contracts need to be regulated and controlled.
These are issues that the Antimonopoly Act and Subcontract Act deal with, and instruments such as the Subcontract Act can be referred to. The second area that the government needs to engage in and support is education and training. Important concept here is the right to develop a career, which is the right for people to build and fulfill their careers throughout the working life. In a way, this is a preventative and proactive way of safety net, which is aimed at preventing cases that workers and people are exposed to vulnerable conditions such as poverty and unemployment.
Basic idea behind labour law is that workers are vulnerable a priori, and thus need protection. This is the case for ordinary workers and even more so for self-employed workers. Policies need to focus on preparing workers to be in strong bargaining positions and strengthening their employability.
The third area is safety net for those that, despite the efforts for education and training, and strengthening employability, lapse into unemployment or poverty. Social security system for self-employed workers is not well developed compared to ordinary workers such as for health insurance. Self-employed workers do not have employment insurance, while employed workers have favorable pension scheme.
Employed workers enjoy much more favorable treatment. Additionally, infrahumans are unable to conceive of alternative responses to gestures. Humans, however, can. This perspective is also rooted in phenomenological thought see social constructionism and phenomenology. According to symbolic interactionism, the objective world has no reality for humans, only subjectively-defined objects have meaning. Meanings are not entities that are bestowed on humans and learned by habituation. Instead, meanings can be altered through the creative capabilities of humans, and individuals may influence the many meanings that form their society.
Neurological evidence based on EEGs supports the idea that humans have a "social brain," that is, there are components of the human brain that govern social interaction. A good example of this is when people try on clothes before going out with friends. Some people may not think much about how others will think about their clothing choices, but others can spend quite a bit of time considering what they are going to wear. And while they are deciding, the dialogue that is taking place inside their mind is usually a dialogue between their "self" that portion of their identity that calls itself "I" and that person's internalized understanding of their friends and society a " generalized other " called the "me".
Such an individual has incorporated the "social" into the "self" and will thus experience the world through an ongoing internal communication process that seeks to determine "if I do this, what will be thought of me. It should also be noted that symbolic interactionists advocate a particular methodology.
Because they see meaning as the fundamental component of human and society interaction, studying human and society interaction requires getting at that meaning. Thus, symbolic interaction tends to take two distinct, but related methodological paths. Processual Symbolic Interaction seeks to uncover the elaboration and experience of meanings in natural settings of social interaction through primarily qualitative methods e. Symbolic Interaction arose through the integration of Structural Functionalism and Conflict Theories.
Specifically, Symbolic Interaction seeks to uncover the ways "meanings" are deployed within interactions and embedded within larger social structures to facilitate social cohesion Structural Functionalism and social change Conflict Theories. To use the case above, Symbolic Interaction may be used to explain the distinction between Conflict and Structural Functionalist approaches to education.
If people act toward education based on the meaning they have for it, for example, then people that believe or are taught to believe that education serves an important function for all of society e. On the other hand, if people believe or are taught to believe that education transmits social inequalities from generation to generation e.
In either case, societies and the people that form them will move towards cohesion Structural Functionalism or conflict Conflict Theory concerning educational structures based upon the meanings these people have for the current educational structure. Central to Symbolic Interaction is the notion that selves and societies exist in an ongoing reciprocal relationship wherein each acts back upon the other.
Stated another way, Symbolic Interactionism argues that people become selves by learning and internalizing the symbolic materials of the social and historical context and culture they are born into and raised within e. As a result, Symbolic Interactionists argue against the division of society into micro, meso, and macro forms, and instead focus on the ways that interconnected people continuously construct, alter, signify, and affirm themselves and others in ways that create, sustain, and change existing social structures. They thus argue that society is always an ongoing information exchange between individuals, groups, and social structures that each depend on the other for their meaning and by extension their existence and survival.
The most significant limitations of symbolic interactionism relate to its primary contribution: it focuses on the ongoing construction and contestation of meanings in society e. As a result, Symbolic Interactionism typically focuses on "how" things are done e. As a result, Symbolic Interaction is more adequately suited to explaining how the world is, but is unable to demonstrate and document predictions about how the world might differ, if circumstances were hypothetically altered.
Another more micro-oriented approach to understanding social life that also incorporates the more structural elements of society is Role Theory. Role theory posits that human behavior is guided by expectations held both by the individual and by other people. The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform or enact in their daily lives, such as secretary, father, or friend. For instance, most people hold pre-conceived notions of the role expectations of a secretary, which might include: answering phones, making and managing appointments, filing paperwork, and typing memos.
These role expectations would not be expected of a professional soccer player. Individuals generally have and manage many roles. Roles consist of a set of rules or norms that function as plans or blueprints to guide behavior. Roles specify what goals should be pursued, what tasks must be accomplished, and what performances are required in a given scenario or situation. Role theory holds that a substantial proportion of observable, day-to-day social behavior is simply persons carrying out their roles, much as actors carry out their roles on the stage or ballplayers theirs on the field.
Role theory is, in fact, predictive. It implies that if we have information about the role expectations for a specified status e. What's more, role theory also argues that in order to change behavior it is necessary to change roles; roles correspond to behaviors and vice versa. In addition to heavily influencing behavior, roles influence beliefs and attitudes; individuals will change their beliefs and attitudes to correspond with their roles. Many role theorists see Role Theory as one of the most compelling theories bridging individual behavior and social structure.
Roles, which are in part dictated by social structure and in part by social interactions, guide the behavior of the individual. The individual, in turn, influences the norms, expectations, and behaviors associated with roles. The understanding is reciprocal. Role theory has a hard time explaining social deviance when it does not correspond to a pre-specified role. For instance, the behavior of someone who adopts the role of bank robber can be predicted - she will rob banks.
But if a bank teller simply begins handing out cash to random people, role theory would be unable to explain why though role conflict could be one possible answer; the secretary may also be a Marxist-Communist who believes the means of production should belong to the masses and not the bourgeoisie. Another limitation of role theory is that it does not and cannot explain how role expectations came to be what they are. Role theory has no explanation for why it is expected of male soldiers to cut their hair short, but it could predict with a high degree of accuracy that if someone is a male soldier they will have short hair.
Additionally, role theory does not explain when and how role expectations change. As a result, role theorists typically draw upon insights from Symbolic Interaction Theory and Historical Comparative analyses to address these questions. An extension of role theory , impression management is both a theory and process. The theory argues that people are constantly engaged in controlling how others perceive them.
The process refers to the goal-directed conscious or unconscious effort to influence the perceptions of other people by regulating and controlling information in social interaction. If a person tries to influence the perception of her or his own image, this activity is called self-presentation. Erving Goffman , the person most often credited with formally developing impression management theory, cast the idea in a dramaturgical framework. Aware of how they are being perceived by their audience, actors manage their behavior so as to create specific impressions in the minds of the audience.
Strategic interpersonal behavior to shape or influence impressions formed by an audience is not a new idea. Plato spoke of the "great stage of human life" and Shakespeare noted that "All the world is a stage, and all the men and women merely players". Social constructionism is a school of thought introduced into sociology by Peter L. Social constructionism focuses on the description of institutions and actions and not on analyzing cause and effect. Socially constructed reality is seen as an on-going dynamic process; reality is re-produced by people acting on their interpretations of what they perceive to be the world external to them.
Berger and Luckmann argue that social construction describes both subjective and objective reality - that is that no reality exists outside what is produced and reproduced in social interactions. Religion is seen as a socially constructed concept, the basis for which is rooted in either our psyche Freud or man's need to see some purpose in life or worship a higher presence.
One of the key theorists of social constructionism, Peter Berger, explored this concept extensively in his book, The Sacred Canopy. Social constructionism is often seen as a source of the postmodern movement, and has been influential in the field of cultural studies. Following the establishment of women's academic conferences and coordinated protests of the American Sociological Association's annual meetings during the 's, women made significant inroads into Sociology.
For example, women such as Dorothy E. Smith , Joan Acker , Myra Marx Ferree , Patricia Yancey Martin , and bell hooks were all pioneers in Sociology who developed insights and empirical findings that challenged much of existing sociological practice, knowledge, and methods. These early scholars also founded women's academic organizations like Sociologists for Women in Society to lobby for the admittance and inclusion of minority people and perspectives within scientific disciplines. The theoretical perspectives these and subsequent scholars developed is broadly referred to as Feminist Theory.
The name derives from the ties many of these individuals had and continue to have with women's movement organizations, the promotion of minority perspectives, their experience in relation to the subjective nature of scientific practice, and commitment to principles of social justice. Feminist Theory uncovered a vast "herstory" of women's and other minority academic thinking, writing, and activism, and integrated insights from these essays and studies into the scientific enterprise. In so doing, these scholars uncovered many ways that Feminist theorists from as far back as the 's had already introduced insights - such as Social Constructionism , Intersectionality , and the subjective nature and critical possibilities of scientific work - that have become crucial to scientific research and theorizing across disciplines.
Further, historical research into the history of Feminist Thought has uncovered a litany of social theorists - including but not limited to early abolitionists and women's rights proponents like Maria W. Cooper , Harriet Tubman , and one of the first African American women to earn a college degree, Mary Church Terrell ; early black feminist writers promoting gender and sexual equality like Zora Neale Hurston , Langston Hughes , and Richard Bruce Nugent ; early 20th Century writers and activists that sought racial civil rights, women's suffrage, and prison reform like Ida B.
Feminist scholars across disciplines have continuously sought to expand scientific "facts" beyond their initial and often continuing white, male, heterosexual biases and assumptions while seeking knowledge as an entryway into a more just social world. Similar to the other theories outlined in this chapter, Feminist Theory is far more expansive than can adequately be explored within one textbook, let alone within a single chapter in a textbook. Feminist theorists and methods, for example, can be found in wide ranging fields beyond sociology including biology, genetics, chemistry, literature, history, political science, fine arts, religious studies, psychology, anthropology, and public health.
Feminist Theory often dramatically influences scientific theory and practice within such fields. Below we offer summaries of the major conceptual approaches within Feminist Theory. It is important to note, however, that while we outline these perspectives under distinct headings and within specific orders for the purposes of clarity and introduction, contemporary Feminist theorists and researchers across disciplines often draw upon more than one of these perspectives in practice and continually seek ways to refine and integrate each of these approaches.
Before presenting this outline, however, it is important to be aware of three basic premises or foundational ideas within and between contemporary Feminist Theories. With these foundational ideas in mind, we now present the primary Feminist theoretical perspectives. They believe that economic inequalities are the most central form of inequality. Therefore, eliminating capitalism would get rid of gender inequalities. Therefore, to bring about gender equality, we must work to eliminate both capitalism and patriarchy in all social and natural fields of knowledge and experience.
Radical feminists believe that women are oppressed by our patriarchal society. They do not believe that men are oppressed. They seek a fundamental reorganization of society because our existing political, scientific, religious, and social organization is inherently patriarchal. Separatist feminists, like radical feminists, believe that women are oppressed by our patriarchal society. In order to achieve equality, women need to separate themselves from men. Some believe this is a temporary stage while others see this as a permanent goal.
Cultural feminists, like radical feminists, believe that women are oppressed by our patriarchal society. Black feminists believe that many inequalities are important in society today, not only gender. In addition to gender inequalities, they focus on race, ethnicity, and class — and sometimes also add sexuality, nationality, age, disability, and others.
They believe that people experience gender differently depending on their location in socially constructed cultural, political, and biological structures of race, ethnicity and class. Therefore, there is no universal female experience. This perspective is sometimes referred to as multicultural feminism, multiracial feminism, or womanism. Queer feminists - sometimes referred to as Postmodern Feminists - believe that gender and sex as well as other social locations and systems of social and natural organization and categorization are multiple, constantly changing, and performed by individuals and groups within situated social, historical, scientific, and political contexts.
There are many i. They focus on creating social change through challenging the existence and blurring the boundaries of these categories. This perspective shares many ideas with Queer Theory. Recently, some sociologists have been taking a different approach to sociological theory by employing an integrationist approach - combining micro- and macro-level theories to provide a comprehensive understanding of human social behavior while these studies rarely cite Symbolic Interaction Theory, most of their models are based heavily upon Herbert Blumer 's initial elaboration of Symbolic Interaction in relation to social institutions  .
Numerous models could be presented in this vein. George Ritzer's  Integration Model is a good example.
Ritzer proposes four highly interdependent elements in his sociological model: a macro-objective component e. This model is of particular use in understanding society because it uses two axes: one ranging from objective society to subjective culture and cultural interpretation ; the other ranging from the macro-level norms to the micro-level individual level beliefs. The integration approach is particularly useful for explaining social phenomenon because it shows how the different components of social life work together to influence society and behavior.
If used for understanding a specific cultural phenomenon, like the displaying of abstract art in one's home,  the integration model depicts the different influences on the decision. For instance, the model depicts that cultural norms can influence individual behavior. The model also shows that individual level values, beliefs, and behaviors influence macro-level culture.
This is, in fact, part of what David Halle finds: while there are art consumption differences based on class, they are not predicted solely by class. Displayers of abstract art tend not only to belong to the upper-class, but also are employed in art-production occupations. This would indicate that there are multiple levels of influence involved in art tastes — both broad cultural norms and smaller level occupational norms in addition to personal preferences. Durkheim, Emile. Suicide: A Study in Sociology.
Edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Translated by John A. New York: The Free Press. ISBN: Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by Talcott Parsons. Introduction by Anthony Giddens. New York: Routledge. Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books. Berger, Peter L. Collins, Patricia Hill. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books. Mills, C. The Power Elite. Omi, Michael and Howard Winant.
Warner, Michael. New York: Free Press. ISBN X. The History of Sexuality, An Introduction. However, there is one new added accessory. A cell phone. The Maasai today can now use the GPS on their cell phones to locate grazing areas and watering holes for their cattle and also take advantage of other mobile applications such as those that locate potential predators in the area. Cell phones have made avoiding as well as hunting lions much easier for the Maasai people.
Many members of their society have even taken advantage of cell phones to establish and boost a tourism business geared towards offering outsiders a taste of the Maasai life. Hence, cell phones have paradoxically been a key component in maintaining the Maasai's traditional way of life in the face of extreme social change during the Age of Globalization.
The Maasai people are an illustrative example of how one particular society has been able to straddle two stages of societal development i. The simplest definition of society is a group of people who share a defined territory and a culture. In sociology, we take that definition a little further by arguing that society is also the social structure and interactions of that group of people. Social structure is the relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationships within a society.
In sociology, a distinction is made between society and culture. Culture refers to the norms, values, beliefs, behaviors, and meanings given to symbols in a society. For instance, what it means to be a "husband" to a gay couple in Boston is very different from what it means to be a husband to a polygamist man in rural southern Utah. Thus, while the relationship exists in both i.
All human societies have a culture and culture can only exist where there is a society. Sociologists distinguish between society and culture despite their close interconnectedness primarily for analytical purposes: It allows sociologists to think about societal development independent of culture and cultural change which are discussed in the next chapter in greater detail even though societal change and development are contingent upon culture. This chapter presents a brief overview of some of the types of human societies that have existed and continue to exist.
It will then present some classic approaches to understanding society and what changing social structure can mean for individuals. The sociological understanding of societal development relies heavily upon the work of Gerhard Lenski. Classifications of human societies can be based on two factors: 1 the primary means of subsistence and 2 the political structure.
This chapter focuses on the subsistence systems of societies rather than their political structures. While it is a bit far-reaching to argue that all societies will develop through the stages outlined below, it does appear that most societies follow such a route. Some societies have stopped at the pastoral or horticultural stage e. Some societies may also jump stages as a result of the introduction of technology from other societies. It is also worth noting that these categories aren't really distinct groups as there is often overlap in the subsistence systems used in a society.
Some pastoralist societies also engage in some measure of horticultural food production and most industrial and post-industrial societies still have agriculture, just in a reduced capacity. The hunter-gatherer way of life is based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. Consequently, hunter-gatherers are relatively mobile, and groups of hunter-gatherers have fluid boundaries and composition. Typically in hunter-gatherer societies men hunt larger wild animals and women gather fruits, nuts, roots, and other edible plant-based food and hunt smaller animals.
Hunter-gatherers use materials available in the wild to construct shelters or rely on naturally occurring shelters like overhangs. Their shelters give them protection from predators and the elements. The majority of hunter-gatherer societies are nomadic. It is difficult to be settled under such a subsistence system as the resources of one region can quickly become exhausted. Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have very low population densities as a result of their subsistence system.
Agricultural subsistence systems can support population densities 60 to times greater than land left uncultivated, resulting in denser populations. Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have non-hierarchical social structures, though this is not always the case.
Because hunter-gatherers tend to be nomadic, they generally do not have the possibility to store surplus food. As a result, full-time leaders, bureaucrats, or artisans are rarely supported by hunter-gatherer societies. The hierarchical egalitarianism in hunter-gatherer societies tends to extend to gender-based egalitarianism as well. Although disputed, many anthropologists believe gender egalitarianism in hunter-gatherer societies stems from the lack of control over food production, lack of food surplus which can be used for control , and an equal gender contribution to kin and cultural survival.
Archeological evidence to date suggests that prior to 13,BCE, all human beings were hunter-gatherers. While declining in number, there are still some hunter-gatherer groups in existence today. Such groups are found in the Arctic, tropical rainforests, and deserts where other forms of subsistence production are impossible or too costly.
In most cases these groups do not have a continuous history of hunting and gathering; in many cases their ancestors were agriculturalists who were pushed into marginal areas as a result of migrations and wars. Examples of hunter-gatherer groups still in existence include:. The line between agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies is not clear cut. Many hunter-gatherers consciously manipulate the landscape through cutting or burning useless to them plants to encourage the growth and success of those they consume.
Most agricultural people also tend to do some hunting and gathering. Some agricultural groups farm during the temperate months and hunt during the winter. A pastoralist society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is domesticated livestock. It is often the case that, like hunter-gatherers, pastoralists are nomadic, moving seasonally in search of fresh pastures and water for their animals. Employment of a pastoralist subsistence system often results in greater population densities and the development of both social hierarchies and divisions in labor as it is more likely there will be a surplus of food.
Pastoralist societies still exist. For instance, in Australia, the vast semi-arid areas in the interior of the country contain pastoral runs called sheep stations. These areas may be thousands of square kilometers in size. The number of livestock allowed in these areas is regulated in order to reliably sustain them, providing enough feed and water for the stock.
Other examples of pastoralists societies still in existence include:. Horticulturalist societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using hand tools. Like pastoral societies, the cultivation of crops increases population densities and, as a result of food surpluses, allows for a division of labor in society. Horticulture differs from agriculture in that agriculture employs animals, machinery, or some other non-human means to facilitate the cultivation of crops while horticulture relies solely on humans for crop cultivation.
Agrarian societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using a mixture of human and non-human means i. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, and other desired products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock. Agriculture can refer to subsistence agriculture or industrial agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is a simple, often organic, system using saved seed native to the ecoregion combined with crop rotation or other relatively simple techniques to maximize yield.
Historically most farmers were engaged in subsistence agriculture and this is still the case in many developing nations. In developed nations a person using such simple techniques on small patches of land would generally be referred to as a gardener; activity of this type would be seen more as a hobby than a profession. Some people in developed nations are driven into such primitive methods by poverty. It is also worth noting that large scale organic farming is on the rise as a result of a renewed interest in non-genetically modified and pesticide free foods.
In developed nations, a farmer or industrial agriculturalist is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and who provides labor or management in their production. Farmers obtain their financial income from the cultivation of land to yield crops or the commercial raising of animals animal husbandry , or both. Those who provide only labor but not management and do not have ownership are often called farmhands , or, if they supervise a leased strip of land growing only one crop, as sharecroppers. Agriculture allows a much greater density of population than can be supported by hunting and gathering and allows for the accumulation of excess product to keep for winter use or to sell for profit.
The ability of farmers to feed large numbers of people whose activities have nothing to do with material production was the crucial factor in the rise of surplus, specialization, advanced technology, hierarchical social structures, inequality, and standing armies.
Horticulture and agriculture as types of subsistence developed among humans somewhere between 10, and 8, B. Most certainly there was a gradual transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural economies after a lengthy period when some crops were deliberately planted and other foods were gathered from the wild. In addition to the emergence of farming in the Fertile Crescent, agriculture appeared by at least 6, B. Small scale agriculture also likely arose independently in early Neolithic contexts in India rice and Southeast Asia taro.
Full dependency on domestic crops and animals i. If the operative definition of agriculture includes large scale intensive cultivation of land, i. By the early s agricultural practices, particularly careful selection of hardy strains and cultivars, had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages and before, especially in the largely virgin lands of North and South America. In the world, the use of crop breeding, better management of soil nutrients, and improved weed control have greatly increased yields per unit area.
At the same time, the use of mechanization has decreased labor input. The developing world generally produces lower yields, having less of the latest science, capital, and technology base. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their primary economic activity than in any other, yet it only accounts for four percent of the world's GDP. The rapid rise of mechanization in the 20th century, especially in the form of the tractor, reduced the necessity of humans performing the demanding tasks of sowing, harvesting, and threshing.
With mechanization, these tasks could be performed with a speed and on a scale barely imaginable before. These advances have resulted in a substantial increase in the yield of agricultural techniques that have also translated into a decline in the percentage of populations in developed countries that are required to work in agriculture to feed the rest of the population. An industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is industry. Industry is a system of production focused on mechanized manufacturing of goods.
Like agrarian societies, industrial societies increase food surpluses, resulting in more developed hierarchies and significantly more division of labor. The division of labor in industrial societies is often one of the most notable elements of the society and can even function to re-organize the development of relationships.
Whereas relationships in pre-industrial societies were more likely to develop through contact at one's place of worship or through proximity of housing, industrial society brings people with similar occupations together, often leading to the formation of friendships through one's work. When capitalised, The Industrial Revolution refers to the first known industrial revolution, which took place in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries.
What is some times referred to as The Second Industrial Revolution describes later, somewhat less dramatic changes resulting from the widespread availability of electric power and the internal-combustion engine. Today, industry makes up only a relatively small percentage of highly developed countries' workforce see the pie chart above , in large part due to advanced mechanization.
The use of machines and robots to facilitate manufacturing reduces the number of people required to work in industry by increasing their efficiency. As a result, a single worker can produce substantially more goods in the same amount of time today than they used to be able to produce. This has also resulted in a transition in most highly developed countries into a post-industrial or service-oriented economy. A post-industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is derived from service-oriented work, as opposed to agriculture or industry.
Most highly developed countries are now post-industrial in that the majority of their workforce works in service-oriented industries, like finance, healthcare, education, business or sales, rather than in industry or agriculture. This is the case in the U. Post-industrial society is occasionally used critically by individuals seeking to restore or return to industrial development. Increasingly, however, individuals and communities are viewing abandoned factories as sites for new housing and shopping. Capitalists are also realizing the recreational and commercial development opportunities such locations offer.
As noted throughout the above discussion of societal development, changes in the social structure of a society - in this case the primary means of subsistence - also affect other aspects of society. For instance, as hunters and gatherers make the transition into pastoralism and horticulture, they also develop a surplus in food stuffs. Price in fact is the most manipulated component in trade. That is the fundamental flaw of market fundamentalism. Friedrich Hayek's rejection of socialist thinking is based on his view that prices are an instrument of communication and guidance, which embodies more information than each market participant individually processes.
Thus Hayek uses the aggregate defect of individual misjudgments as the correct judgment. To Hayek, it is impossible to bring about the same price-based order based on the division of labor by any other means. Similarly, the distribution of incomes based on a vague concept of merit or need is impossible. Prices, including the price of labor, are needed to direct people to go where they can do the most good. The only effective distribution is one derived from market principles. On that basis, Hayek intellectually rejects government regulation of market. The only trouble with this view is that Hayek's notion of price is a romantic illusion and nowhere practiced.
That was how the Native Americans sold Manhattan to the Dutch for a handful of beads which under modern commercial law would be categorized as a fraudulent transaction. In his acceptance press conference, Stiglitz said, "Market economies are characterized by a high degree of imperfections. The Nature of Cartel A global cartel can take on many variant forms with different characteristics and impacts on the global market. Although every cartel is unique, from oil to diamond, the common attributes of any effective cartel are agreement among members for deliberate restraint on supply to the market to achieve a consistently higher price than that from predatory competition among sellers with no market pricing power.
Theoretically, an ideal cartel can act as a monopoly operated by a number of separate but related yet independent entities. The multi-entity monopoly cartel assumes that it is a cartel authority rather than individual cartel members who makes price and supply decisions such that the cartel as a whole obtains the maximum possible monopoly revenue and profits from the market, and cartel members do not compete with each other but share the total profits in a pre-agreed manner.
Under these terms, the cartel authority actually acts as a monopolist, but not necessarily a total monopolist. The marginal cost curve is determined by using up the lowest cost area first, regardless of which member country the supply area belongs to. The central determination of price and supply by the cartel authority can guarantee maximum profit to the organization as a whole. Therefore, a unanimously accepted profit-share arrangement must be pre-agreed and post-enforced.
However, such a perfect cartel cannot be sustained in reality by OPEC which is composed of constituent sovereign nations. A cartel for labor would have to operate under rules responsive to the unique problems of labor markets, the details of which will have be workout depending of the membership make-up and the negotiated outcome among the members. But the prospect of common benefit will insure that the appropriate operational mechanics can be worked out.
A market-sharing cartel is one in which the members decide on the share of the market that each is allotted as a cartel member to achieve fair sharing of benefits and costs. In order to achieve this objective the members may then meet regularly to reach consensual measures in light of changing market conditions monitored by a staff of specialists.
Since each member country in OPEC retains sovereign power over its own production rate and no individual one except, possibly, Saudi Arabia as a swing producer has the power to fix the price favorable to the cartel, it is predictable that member countries would adopt the market-sharing strategy as the way to achieve the cartel objective.
The members join together to restrain their production for higher prices to gain optimum profit. Violating the cartel quota would serve no purpose as individual member may sell more oil but total revenue would fall because of lower prices.
Theoretically, if cartel members have similar marginal cost curves, the ideal market-sharing strategy can achieve the same goals as the joint profit-maximizing ideal cartel model, outcomes of which are equivalent to those of a monopolist operating a number of plants. Third World economies with surplus labor operate separately from a collective disadvantaged position in global trade because global capital obeys the Law of One Price while global labor is exempt form the Law of One Price.
As dollar hegemony forces all foreign investments into the export sectors of non-dollar economies to earn dollars from trade, it produces a structural shortage of capital for non-export domestic development in all developing countries. These non-dollar economies then suffer from an imbalance between excess labor and a shortage of capital that prevents them from achieving full employment and to improve overall labor productivity.
This imbalance translates into low wages that depress domestic consumer demand that in turn discourages investment in a downward vicious cycle of perpetual domestic underdevelopment. This widespread local underdevelopment in turn prevents the global economy from developing its full growth potential from rising consumer demand. This hurts not only the developing economies, but the advanced economies as well. On the one hand, cross-border wage disparity has given rise to predatory outsourcing that threatens employment and wage levels in the advanced economies. On the other hand, low wages around the world prevents needed growth of exports from the advanced economies to balance trade.
Thus raising wages around the world to reduce or even eliminate cross-border wage disparity is good for all economies. It would be the win-win proposition that neo-liberal free traders promised but never delivered. The current regressive terms of global trade need to be altered by a progressive global labor cartel.
An International Labor Cartel is a Positive and Progressive Undertaking Since competition for global capital in a deregulated global financial market tends to depress wages worldwide to the detriment of all, it follows that a cartel to give labor fair pricing power in international trade would be a positive and progressive undertaking. Dollar hegemony has deprived Third World economies the option of using sovereign credit for domestic development, leaving export trade as the only available alternative. Yet economic and monetary policy sovereignty of all Third World nations has been under relentless attack from neo-liberal terms of trade.
But creating a cartel for labor along the lines of OPEC, a political organization with an economic agenda, i. The Zaibatsu was a finance cartel in pre-war Japan. When the US occupation broke up the Zaibatsu, the dispersed companies quickly reformed in Keiretsu of horizontally-integrated alliances across industries around a major bank. The OPEC leaders achieved pricing power in the global oil market with two preconditions: ownership of oil in the ground not movable they occupy and political sovereignty.
With that they managed to raise the price of oil, albeit with occasional failures and at the same time reduce the abusive waste of energy in the consuming countries, especial the advanced economies. Now the labor-intensive exporting countries have two similar preconditions: 1 workers that cannot leave because of immigration regimes of all advanced countries and 2 political sovereignty. They can do the same in pricing labor as OPEC did in pricing oil to provide a bench mark global wage platform and to steadily raise wages to alter the current destructive terms of trade in the globalized market.
The idea should also get support from the US corporations and labor movement and the likes of Lou Dobbs. The way to do this is to make it impossible for global capital to exploit cross-border wage arbitrage for profit without raising wages to close to wage gap, and if necessary, with countervailing charges or taxes. Conversely, tax preference can be tied to a rising wage policy. Globalization itself is not a bad development.
The idea of economic development is not to redistribute wealth by making the rich poor, but to create new wealth by making the poor rich at an accelerated pace to reverse the widening gap between rich and poor. The neo-liberal financial system provides credit only to firms that profit from driving wages down and withholds credit from firms that raise wages.
What the world needs is a credit allocation regime and a profit measuring system to link corporate profitability with raising wage levels rather than lowering them. Lest we should forget, this is a very American idea. Henry Ford did it in the US by voluntarily paying higher wages than the market norm so that his workers could afford to buy the cars they produced.
The US experience has proved that the poor can be made richer without the rich getting poorer. This can be done by enlarging the pie while benignly re-dividing it so that no one gets less than before while the poor get more faster, rather than just re-dividing a shrinking pie. The US itself provided very good lessons on how it could be done. The US has a superior Gini coefficient, which measures net income equality, than many underdeveloped economies.
And the US is a richer nation by far. This shows that if global Gini coefficient improves with more income equality, the global economy can also be richer. Much of the problems currently faced by the US economy have to do with the use of debt to mask a declining Gini coefficient. This superiority was based on three factors: 1 high socio-economic mobility, 2 high wages with relatively equality of income and 3 heavy public investment in physical and social infrastructure such as transportation, education and research and public health.
Socio-economic mobility manifested itself in a flowering of creative entrepreneurship and innovation. It was easy to turn new ideas and innovations into new small businesses because of pent-up demand from the war years and a friendly posture of banks that provided easy credit for returning veterans who aspired to be small business owners. Big business applied its war-time management techniques to concentrate on heavy industry, benefiting from technological and management breakthroughs made in war research and systems analysis, leaving small and medium business opportunities to young new entrepreneurs to exploit innovations to fill the needs of a market economy in transition from war production to peace production.
Communication and transportation were relatively costly and cumbersome, keeping centralized management from being cost-effective in pervasive control of local markets, thus enabling small local entrepreneurs to compete effectively with big business through nearness to market and sheer nimbleness to change. A new middle class of good and rising income came quickly into existence that was confident, dynamic and independent. This came to be recognized around the world as the American Spirit, the belief that the combination of good ideas and hard work will lead to success in a free and open market, even though only a very small part of the US market was really free and open.
China is now at the beginning of this path of development with spectacular success. High wages and full employment in post-war US led to strong consumer demand and a happy working class whose economic interests were effectively promoted by a strong labor movement that had developed productive symbiotic relationships with management from war production.
Home ownership was promoted by government subsidies through credit guarantees and interest ceilings. All that was need to realize the American dream was a job, the income from which was closely calibrated to pay for a home, a car, a good life, free education, affordable health care and comfortable retirement, all accomplished with consumer financing. The concept of pay as you go liberated Americans from the slavery of save first, consume later, which would produce overcapacity while consumer needs remained unsatisfied.
And jobs were plentiful because consumer demand was strong. There was living democracy in the workplace, with bosses forced to treat workers with equality and with the respect awarded to customers in order to retain them. The income gap between factory workers and professionals engineers, lawyer, doctors, etc. Many hourly-paid union tradesmen such as plumbers, carpenters, metal workers, electricians, etc.
Aside from old money, income disparity among the working population was small, giving society de-facto socio-economic-cultural democracy. This happy outcome was because work was fairly and highly compensated. The GI Bill obliterated the elitist tradition of higher education. Children of working class, farming and immigrant background went to college and graduate school for the first time in US history and went on to be titans of industry and academia.
This public-funded investment in human capital was the single largest contributor to US prosperity for the post-war decades until this generation reached retirement age in the mid s. Despite the anti-communist ideology behind the Cold War, the US economy benefited greatly from socialistic programs that began in the New Deal while the core of the US economy remained firmly rooted in capitalism. The combination of a capitalistic core and a socialist infrastructure produced one of the greatest prosperities in human history, relatively free of oppressive exploitation.
Within limits, the US was undeniably the freest and riches society in the world. With such a wondrously successful system, it was a puzzle why Americans were told by their leaders to fear communism since the whole world was trying to copy the US. Where the USSR erred was that it failed to allow a consumer market of small entrepreneurs, a mistake China is now avoiding. Cold War paranoia in the US reversed the populist policies and arrested the economic ascendance of the middle class in the US while it turned the young socialist economies around the world into victims of garrison state politics.
The Vietnam War was a continuation of that misguided geopolitical posture. These counterproductive wars not only did not achieve their misguided geopolitical objectives, they forced the US to rely on Japan as a convenient and docile ally both militarily and economically, shutting out the rest of Asia, and most importantly, its vast market by self-negating embargos imposed by US foreign policy.
In Europe, confrontation with Soviet communism after the Berlin Crisis forced the US to build up defeated Germany as a key military and economic client state. These policies set up the US in a new role of neo-imperialist in a global struggle of the rich against the poor. To support Germany and Japan and to incorporate them economically into a reactionary West led by the US, the US decided to allocate the sunset industries to their economies, such as auto manufacturing, while the US kept the high-tech industries such as aircraft manufacturing, television and computers and most importantly defense industries.
Japan and South Korea were later given steel-making and shipbuilding to help support US logistics in Asian wars. The original idea was that subsidized imports to the US from these new allies were to be tolerated only on a temporary basis, that they were expected to supply low-priced goods to the parts of the global market that were too poor to buy US goods produced at high wages.
In time, the US came to depend on relatively inexpensive imports from Japan and Germany to help contain inflation. Both German and Japan failed to recover to this day as truly sovereign powers to fulfill their full potential as independent states. Meanwhile, domestically the worst aspects of both capitalism and socialism were working hand-in-hand to weaken the US economy.
The organization man emerged from US corporate bureaucratic culture, robbing the economy of creativity and initiative. The likes of IBM, General Motors and General Electric became ruthless predators that chewed up independent entrepreneurs for breakfast by their market monopoly. A MIT professor of electronics with a new technology would start a successful company by servicing IBM which then would force a fire sale of the new company to IMB by threatening to stop buying from it. Within a year of its success, the new innovative company would become another IBM subsidiary managed by the huge bureaucracy of a gigantic enterprise.
And the professor would retire from creative work with the sale proceeds. Finance and banking evolved in ways that discriminated against small business and those with inadequate capital, and pushed innovative entrepreneurs to seek funding from venture capitalist firm whose main aim to sell the new companies to big business for a quick profit. Risk-taking eventually became too costly for entrepreneurs, but cheap for speculators.