source In , during the Italian revolutionary ferments he left as a volunteer with the Tuscan army; an energic political sense will inspire his first literary works, starting from the founding of a satirical newspaper Il Lampione , which was later closed by order of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Spring of In May however the newspaper was re-born. Lorenzini had earn some early fame in with the romance In vapore and had also begun intense activity on other political newspapers such as Il Fanfulla ; at the same time he was employed by the Censorship Commission for theatre. In this period he composed sometimes simply by collecting previous articles Macchiette , Occhi e nasi , Storie allegre , satirical and humouristic sketches and stories.
In he translated an edition of I racconti delle fate? The bookshop was also a publishing house frequented by intellectuals and patriots who included B. Afterwards Collodi became friends with the librarian and scholar G. It was through Aiazzi that Collodi started working as a theatre reporter for the Rivista di Firenze and as musical critic for the Arpa musicale.
In he and other intellectuals started the satirical journal Il lampione. It was from this moment that he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Collodi. The journal's self-declared aim to illuminate those in the dark was shortlived; it was closed by censorship the following year, but reopened in He and his brother Paolo enlisted in the II Florentine battalion and fought in Montanara during the Italian Independence wars 1 that led to the unification of Italy.
In the same year his father died and Collodi was again in search of work. With Aiazzi's help he was elected clerk in the Tuscan Senate. To make ends meet he collaborated on several magazines and translated novels from French. In he founded and edited the theatrical magazine Lo Scaramuccia. He wanted intellectuals such as P. Fanfani and P. Ferrigni to contribute to the magazine. He wrote for many magazines and his work for the theatre gave him an adequate livelihood. In he enlisted as a volunteer in the Piedmontese army.
After the Villafranca armistice, 2 nd Italian Independence war, he was discharged and went back to Florence where he found a job in the office of theatrical censorship and subsequently at the prefecture. He continued to work as a journalist for magazines such as Fanfulla , La nazione and Gazzetta del popolo. In there were changes to his working life. He translated Contes and the Histoires by Charles Perrault and other fairy tales for the florentine publishing house Paggi. In he published the book Racconti delle fate , illustrated by E. This was the opportunity for him to start devoting most of his time to children's literature.
He also published two primers for the publishing house Paggi: in the Giannettino , inspired by the L. Parravicini's pedagogical novel, Il Giannetto and Minuzzolo in The protagonists of these books are rebellious and rather bored children, who gradually became good and obedient thanks to their adventures and to the affectionate advice of their relatives.
In the same period Collodi's interest in education can also be seen in the textbooks he wrote on geography and history. They were written in an original, humoristic style which did not win the approval of the ministry of Education. Collodi used dialogues so the children could be entertained as well as educated.
These textbooks include: Viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino ; La grammatica di Giannettino ; L'abbaco di Giannettino per le scuole elementari ; La geografia di Giannettino ; La lanterna magica di Giannettino At the request of a friend, G. Biagi, Collodi began writing about Pinocchio and from the story of Pinocchio was serialized in Il giornale per i bambini , with the title La storia di un burattino. Initially the story ended with the death of the puppet, who was hanged from a tree. Owing to the story's huge success Collodi revived the puppet to write more adventures.
In he published the book Le avventure di Pinocchio : storia di un burattino, illustrated by Mazzanti. It soon became the most widely read and translated book after the bible; translated into languages with editions. In the meantime, from to , Collodi became the director of the Giornale dei bambini.
In he wrote the Storie allegre. In his mother died and he became increasingly more depressed. He died suddenly in Florence on the 26 th of october, Pinocchio: a Buildungsroman?
Raccolta di racconti usciti a più riprese sul "Giornale per i bambini"; tra essi spicca "Pipì, o lo scimmiottino color di rosa", lunga e articolata sorta di continuazione. I racconti delle fate (Italian Edition) [Carlo Collodi] on xysagarevefe.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. La 15 fiabe classiche più belle tradotte ed adattate da.
When I was a child, Pinocchio was always present in my parents' teachings, but most of all in my teacher's words: they used to say if you tell a lie, your nose will grow longer and longer, just like Pinocchio's one. And quoting Collodi, they would say there are two kind of lies: those with short legs and those with long noses.
Sometimes I was really worried about the length of my nose and my legs but, just like Pinocchio, I shrugged my shoulders and kept on playing and telling innocent white lies. Pinocchio was also present in adult's words to remind us that we had to obey parents, we had to behave in the right way, there really seem to be no more than one right way to follow, otherwise terrible things would have happened to us: and the image of poor Pinocchio hanging from the big oak tree terrified me as well as his long donkey ears, not to talk about poor Lampwick, who after all was nothing more than a little child with a tiny brain, but didn't deserve to die.
For all these reasons I was not fond of Pinocchio at all and I didn't enjoy my mother telling me the story. I think this personal experience of mine can show how profoundly Pinocchio has entered the Italian conscience: it was and it is generally considered a Bildungsroman, a novel that shows how a person's formative years can lead to a better understanding of the world and of their place in the world.
Actually it is possible to say that the story of Pinocchio as a model for a personal growth is focused on the child's guilt, on continuous threats, death in Pinocchio is always present, Pinocchio himself risks dying and in fact has to die to become a real boy, well this model has been exported also abroad, particularly with the Walt Disney film, that is certainly less cruel than the original book, but contains this idea of dependence on adults and of the unique model for a right behaviour.
Looking at the novel with critical eyes, can we really consider it a Buildungsroman?
In order to answer to this question 2 , I would go through the story itself, starting from the beginning, as it should be done. When Pinocchio is still a silent piece of wood, Geppetto goes to mr.
Cherry and shares with him the following idea: "I thought I would make a fine wooden puppet - a really fine one, that can dance, fence and turn somersaults in the air. Then, with this puppet, I could travel round the world, and earn my bit of bread and my glass of wine" Collodi, , p. The idea of Geppetto is to make a puppet in order to use it as a means to have a better life!
It is neither a desire of fatherhood nor an educative idea, rather it is that of creating a marionette that can move but cannot think. And so he does - he creates a puppet, that can move, can run, can do a lot of things - but which cannot think at all.
And Geppetto will discover to his cost that this was a big mistake A puppet that cannot think is a puppet that cannot understand the world outside himself and that is always trying to obtain what he needs, without thinking of anyone else, but how is it possible to control a puppet without strings and without any brain?
We can say that Geppetto has began the whole enterprise in the wrong way, forgetting that Pinocchio could grow up with his own personality, desires and identity. Throughout all the book no one has any respect for Pinocchio's ideas or wishes; he is always punished in order to make him grow up as everybody should grow up.
Anyway Geppetto should have considered that he was giving life, and not simply creating a puppet, but his intention is not that of a father rather that of man that doesn't want his personal order to be upset. Creating a life, even from a piece of wood, implies a great responsibility and Geppetto seems not to be aware of this.
Instead, he appears to feel this responsibility as a huge load as the story unfolds. He loves his son, that's clear from the very beginning, but he doesn't actually know how to act as a father. Father and son should learn together, they should grow together, but they don't. He has just finished making Pinocchio's eyes and, to quote Collodi, "when Geppetto saw those two wooden eyes looking at him, he did not like it at all, and he said angrily "naughty wooden eyes, why are you staring at me?
Why is Geppetto angry? Why does he judge these wooden eyes and call them 'naughty'? He seems not to like the life stirring in the piece of wood. And when life explodes, a few lines after, with Pinocchio running away with his new legs and feet, Geppetto gets even more angry "You scoundrel of a son!
You are not finished and you already disobey your father! That's bad, my boy - very bad" Collodi, , p. And talking to himself he confesses he wished he'd never started carving the wood, but it is too late, the puppet is already there! He didn't properly consider the consequences of giving life to a piece of wood! That means educate, teach, make him understand the way things go, talk to him, listen to him, grow and change together with him.
And Geppetto is not able to do this! He only has a few certainties and he wants them to be respected by the puppet. So at the beginning of the story there is a strong contrast between the explosion of life, the puppet's enthusiastic approach to life and the still, slightly sad and static image of the world that belongs to Geppetto.
Consequently Geppetto and Pinocchio have different expectations: Geppetto simply wants Pinocchio to act as it should be done, Pinocchio, on his side, lives in a world that he always fails to understand, a world that for him is completely unreadable, unintelligible, so he always does the wrong thing. This lack of understanding culminates in the episode of the assassins and the big oak tree. So he doesn't recognize the assassins, that are the fox and the cat in disguise, and is terribly scared by them.
They want his money and, in order to obtain it, they hang Pinocchio on a branch of the big oak tree and wait for his death. In the fight Pinocchio bites off the cat's paw and spits it out. Notwithstanding this, he doesn't understand that he is fighting with the fox and the cat, the same two who have just promised to make his golden coins grow as if they were seeds.
He never manages to read reality: he is curious, he would like to discover and understand the world, but he can never decode the deceitful behaviour of people. So what is his guilt this time?
Why has he to be hanged and risk death? Because he didn't obey the adult in this case the adult is the Fire-eater who had given him the five golden coins to bring to his father. But if we look more profoundly at the story, he actually trusts the adult, but the wrong one! He thinks the fox and the cat to be honest, but they aren't! He is so ignorant since he doesn't go to school that he doesn't know that coins never grow on trees, but his intentions are good: he would like his father to be richer and happier and proud of his disobedient son! In the logic of the story we can say that the reason why he is hanged on a tree is because he has to learn a lesson: if you do wrong you get punished, if you keep on doing wrong you will pay with your life.
The logic is cause-effect, nothing else will do. There are no other ways and Pinocchio is more and more distant from this reality: how can he ever learn how to act in the right way? There is only one possibility: lose his curiosity and his own personal journey with himself. It is not important to understand why it should happen like this, what counts is to do what is expected of you and obey. So, to answer our first question, we cannot consider this novel a Bildungsroman because there is no interest in giving the child a better understanding of the world, nurturing his soul and his mind.
This leads me to my second question: is Pinocchio a novel for children? I think it isn't and here are my reasons. In this world the child-Pinocchio is always at risk: if he doesn't do what he is told to, he risks being trapped, caught, by the enemy, always a dishonest, wicked man, that can be the fox and the cat, the fire-eater, that fortunately after all was a good man, the fisherman, the couchman, known as the little man - the driver of the couch that deceived the children into thinking they were going to Playland.