David and Jacko: The Janitor and The Serpent (Serbian Cyrillic Edition)

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ksk-gertseno.ru/libraries/33.php Pennybridge , blackletter Pharmount A calligraphic connected script. Phraell A great italic formal calligraphic script with optional swashes. Pigeon Pineapple Plates Napery Plicata Pligo A balloon or cartoon font. Preside Prime Script Prognostic Qaskin A semi-formal connected script typeface with Black and White outlined styles. Qraxy Quickier Pro A swashy calligraphic script face. Quincho Script Radio A creamy ultra-fat upright script. Followed by Rough Rakoon in Rangly A paint roll font.

Raspberry Script Recorda Script A formal calligraphic script. Reditum A decorative script. Reeler , with Noah Kinard. Remachine Script Retro signage script. Roona Sans modernist and organic curves. Ropest A rope font. A fat baseball script. Saker Sans Scantype A great brush typeface. Shaded Larch Sharpe Shenandoah flowing signage script. Shimes Shipped Goods Shortbrush Signerica , connected flowing hand Sketchica , sketchy face Skyzhi An advertising headline typeface. Society Editor , connected script.

Snacker Comic Snowstreet , an octagonal typeface and Snowy South African A movie poster brush typeface. Southern Aire , connected script face. Specify A style sans family. Spoken Square Worm Stackyard A script. Stainy Starella Script Strawberry Script String Lines Stroke Dimension , 3d face Suecos Locos yummy! Sultan Cafe An interlocking poster typeface. Sverige Script Calligraphic wedding font. Tall Casat Tamoro Script Tevegraphy , elliptical The Hills Tomino Top Comic A very fat cartoon bubble face. Undergone Decorative and calligraphic.

Unthrift A pen script. Vacer Sans and Vacer Serif The latter is a slab serif. Ventography A bold signage script. Waiter Walk Da Walk One Wandals Wankstaberg Battles , a tall fat script White Larch A connected script typeface. Wild Growth Winfield Script Xtreem and Xtreem2 Yaquote Script Yaty Yoghurt Abstract Fonts link. Fontspace link. MyFonts link. Another URL. Dafont link. Old URL. American calligrapher in Andover, MA, who worked for many foundries, and ran several studios.

After serving in the U. Some of Baker's earliest designs were made available through Photo-Lettering Inc. Baker's first book was published in Arthur Baker died in at the age of Tribute by Allan Haley. His typefaces were all calligraphic: Amigo Adobe , Amigo Linotype. Designed by Arthur Baker in for Agfa Compugraphic, Amigo is based on spontaneous pen lettering and an exaggerated calligraphic look. Arrows Arthur Baker. Made in Originally designed as a photo type in for VGC, it was Baker's first commercial design.

Baker Signet features in the word Coke on the Coca Cola bottles. Halley writes: Tall ascenders and angled weight transfer show a subtle foundation in late 15th century typefaces. Baker Signet, in its display text weights, was at the basis of Sigvar Softmaker. Created in Cold Mountain Arthur Baker. Designed in Collier Script Arthur Baker.

Daybreak Arthur Baker. The typeface was originally commissioned for a book of woodblock prints by nineteenth-century Japanese artist Ando Hiroshige, whose work influenced many impressionist artists. Hiroshige Sans Arthur Baker followed in Kigali Arthur Baker , Kigali Adobe. Designed by Arthur Baker in for URW, Kigali is a wide-bodied display type with bold, uneven pen-drawn strokes that taper dramatically downward. There also is a textured version called Kigali ZigZag. Marigold Monotype , Marigold Adobe.

Marigold was first released by Agfa Compugraphic in Based on the lettering of Flemish map maker Gerardus Mercator Oakgraphic Arthur Baker. Oxford Adobe. Designed for Agfa Compugraphic in It is a robust and lively non-connecting script with several bi-form characters. P22 Matador is a contemporary Roman font based on the manuscript tradition digitized by Michael Clark.

Pelican Linotype , Pelican Adobe. Released by Agfa Compugraphic in Plumes Arthur Baker. Sassafras Arthur Baker , Sassafras Adobe. Designed for URW in , Sassafras is based on the natural inline effect created when writing with a split-metal nibbed pen. Swirls , Swooshes Visigoth Adobe , Visigoth Linotype. Baker originally made Signet for Headliners International in the s, where he worked full time. In he was approached by VGC and told that they would pay him royalties as well if he made the same typeface for them.

Royalties were a relatively new thing back then - Tommy Thompson was the very first person to ever earn royalties in type in for his Thompson Quill script for Photo Lettering Inc , and he wasn't a type designer per se, he was a calligrapher. Lured by the idea of royalties coming his way from two different directions for the same face, Baker did a Signet for VGC. When Bob Evans, owner of Headliners, found out, he threatened to sue VGC for trademark infringement copyright for typefaces was unheard of at the time - every major photo type house had "similar" fonts, and whenever someone got exclusives made by outside designers under a royalty program, it was only a matter of weeks before they were knocked off and changed slightly by other type houses, big and small.

So in order to avoid a trademark infringement lawsuit, VGC called their typeface Baker Signet, instead of just Signet, and went further by asking Arthur Baker to make a lighter version and a condensed version. The lighter version was called Baker Argentina, the condensed version was called Baker Danmark.

The "Number One" prefix was added to both so that when the inevitable knockoffs happened, type buyers would know which type was made first. It was a massive family of a lot of fonts, rendered very ugly by camera stretching and slanting. Eddie Bauer used it as their corporate typeface for a long time in order to avoid the expensive fees of licensing Helvetica. Tim Ryan ended up digitizing it for Arthur Baker in the mid s for a lot of money. View Arthur Baker's typefaces.

MyFonts page. Another MyFonts page. And still another MyFonts page. Asritype [Sudarmaji]. Indonesian designer of Astonice a cursive typeface with chancery style ascenders , Clarina Sans , the text typeface Alphabet Asri and the italic font Avarita On this site dedicated to Pali fonts, we found Bhikkhu Pesala's free fonts : Akkhara , derived from Gentium , Cankama , blackletter , Carita , all caps roman , Garava , Guru made for Buddhist publications, it is a rather complete Latin, Greek and symbol font , Hattha , felt marker face , Kabala , after Kabel The Pali fonts all have over Latin characters with diacritics including those needed for Sanskrit and Pali transcriptions.

They cover Latin, Vietnamese, chess symbols, and astrological signs, and are based on Zapf's Palatino. The fonts as of , including newer fonts, but with some older ones removed: Acariya : a Garamond style typeface derived from Guru, but with suboptimal kerning. Balava : a revival of Baskerville derived from Libre Baskerville. Cankama: a Gothic, Black Letter script. Garava was designed for body text. It has a generous x-height and economical copy-fit. Typeface Sample Guru: a condensed Garamond style typeface designed for economy of copyfit.

Hari : a hand-writing script derived from Allura by Robert E. Leuschke, released under the SIL license. Jivita : an original sans typeface for body text. Kabala: a sans serif typeface designed for display text or headings. Lekhana: Pesala's version of Zapf Chancery. Mahakampa : a hand-writing script derived from Great Vibes by Robert E. Mandala: designed for decorative body text or headings. Has chess symbols. Nacca : a hand-writing script derived from Dancing Script by Pablo Impallari. Odana: a calligraphic almost blackletter brush font suitable for titles, or short texts where a less formal appearance is wanted.

Open Sans : a sans font suitable for body text. Includes diacritics for Pali and Sanskrit. Pali: Pesala's version of Hermann Zapf's Palatino. Sukhumala : derived from Sort Mills Goudy. Talapanna: Pesala's version of Goudy Bertham, with decorative gothic capitals and extra ligatures in the Private Use Area. Veluvana : A heavy brush style. The Greek glyphs are from Guru. Small Caps are greater than x-height. Verajja: a Pali word meaning "variety of kingdoms or provinces. Verajja Serif. Bhikkhu Pesala is a Buddhist monk in London.

Another link. Astigmatic One Eye [Brian J. Bonislawsky b. Many are free, others are not. Fontsquirrel link. There are many techno and gothic fonts. Kill Me Craig is the first 26 death scene dingbat font scenes by Craig Dowsett. KittyPrint takes the LinusFace font concept to more realistic cat head dingbats. Krelesanta not free is a funky font inspired by the band Kreamy Electric Santa.

The free ButtonButton is useful for making buttons. Lovesick AOE is a scrawly, lovelorn typeface, i's dotted with hearts. Senth AOR is a runic font. Charaille is one of the many dot matrix fonts. Cavalero is inspired by the logotype of the Chevy Cavalier. Bio at Bitstream. From the bio and various pieces of information, one is led to believe that Brian was born in Poland, and now lives in Miami, but that may be wrong. In , he placed a free font at the Google Directory , Syncopate. Somewhat of a cross between Bodoni and Pixie, this font finds that it never truly takes itself seriously.

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However, poor health forced his return to Europe and a storm at sea deposited him in Sicily. Innocent lived simply and was generous to the poor; he was beatified in All rights reserved. Multiple processes Although we have concentrated on each of these word-formation processes in isola- tion, it is possible to trace the operation of more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word. It became the Oblates of Tor de Specchi, which she directed for her last four years.

Their first commercial typefaces, all jointly designed, are Luckiest Guy Pro a fat comic book font based on vintage s ads and Marcellus Pro a flared roman inscriptional typeface with both upper and lower case, originally published in by Astigmatic. In , Brian J. Bonislawasky and Jim Lyles published the rugged octagonal mega typeface family Tradesman at Grype.

Hugh Gordon. In , they published the letterpress emulation typeface Prison Pro, Pink Sangria 50s style movie font , Manic Tambourine, Motenacity a Martian cartoon font , the old typewriter font Office Memorandum Pro, and the Flintstone font Strongman. View Astigmatic's typeface library. View the typefaces made by Brian Bonislawsky. Creative Market link. During her studies, Gdansk, Poland-based Barbara Szwedowska created a gorgeous pair of chancery hand typefaces Polish type designer involved in GUST.

Nowacki and Piotr Strzelczyk. Brian J. Bonislawsky [Astigmatic One Eye]. Bruce Rogers. Albert Bruce Rogers was a celebrated American type and book designer b. A graduate from Purdue in , he worked in book design. It was not until that he cut his first typeface, Montaigne, a Venetian style typeface named for the first book it appeared in, a limited edition of The Essays of Montaigne. In , Rogers moved to New York City where he worked both as an independent designer and as house designer for the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Like Montaigne, it was based on the Venetian typefaces of Nicolas Jenson. Wikipedia: Rogers considered this typeface to be a substantial improvement on his early Montaigne, both because his design had matured and because, on the advice of Frederic Goudy, he had employed Robert Wiebking as the punch-cutter, and Rogers used Centaur extensively for the rest of his career.

Wikipedia: As he did not feel capable of designing the sort of chancery typeface that he thought appropriate, Rogers chose to pair Centaur with Frederic Warde's Arrighi, a pairing retained to this day. His typefaces: Montaigne , privately cast. Punches cut by John Cumming. It was derived from one page printed in the noted type of Nicolas Jenson, and made in one size only, approximately point, with punches cut by John Cumming of Worcester. Compare Jenson, Cloister, Centaur, Eusebius. Centaur original Development continued until Centaur is a modern version of Nicolas Jenson's Venetian typeface Centaur.

There are many digital age descendants of Centaur. Type families called Centaur exist at Adobe, Monotype and Linotype. Centaur Monotype , Monotype Ltd. Matrices re-cut for machine composition by British Monotype. Mac McGraw: Centaur was designed by Bruce Rogers in , based on the beautiful roman type first used by Nicolas Jenson in , and a refinement of Mon- taigne q. In it was recut under the joint sponsorship of Lanston Monotype and Monotype Corporation, England, but issued only by the latter.

Some critics have called it the best recutting of the Jenson letter. Arrighi q. Discussion of Centaur by Don Hosek. About Centaur Monotype , and its digital version, Dean Allen writes: Like Bembo, released for the Monotype machine the same year, Centaur was an exceptionally beautiful and eminently readable revival of Renaissance type.

Unfortunately, the producers of the digital version made a common mistake: the shapes are based on the most basic starting point of Bruce Rogers designs. These designs were intended for metal type that would press into paper, the ink spreading as it absorbed into the fibre. The resulting printed shapes had a good deal more visual force than the original designs. The process was total: design anticipating application. This version of Centaur suffers from the perfection of the process of digital design and offset printing: the original shape is printed coldly intact, and thus its very difficult to set a well-made page in Centaur.

The blurb: The history of the Centaur type, likely the most important American typefeace ever designed, has been recounted untold times in very general terms, following the official version of events, purported by its designer in several publications. Yet, as the new research by Jerry Kelly and Misha Beletsky shows, there is a number of gray areas to the story. The new data, culled from archival documents, some unpublished, as well as from a variety of published sources presents this important design and its history in a new light.

Casper Neff introduced the chancery script cancellaresca in Germany in his book, Thesaurium artis scriptoriae. Prolific author, b. Parker in , from a design by Clarence P. It is an ornamental form of roman letter, with curly serifs, and tendrils at the ends of light strokes.

It was recast in , and copied in one size by Los Angeles Type. Download here. More direct link to Pape's digitizations. French type designer b. He studied typography, calligraphy and painting at the School of Fine Arts in Toulouse. He received the Prix Charles Peignot in In , the President of France invited him to design the inscriptions for the royal tombs in the Basilique Saint Denis in Paris.

He published Calligraphie Imprimerie Nationale, In , with the help of Atelier des Signes , he created a typeface for the signage at Chateau de Fontainebleau. Additional URL. His typefaces: Galba : an elegant roman titling face, done at Mecanorma in Media Script Mecanorma, Mediavilla CCT, Mediavilla Script Graphitel, Palazzo Mecanorma, Tory Dutch letterer and calligrapher, or He published the calligraphic masterpiece Gramato graphices in Amsterdam in This book has several blackletter and chancery alphabets proposed by Boissens.

Teaser web site by yours truly. Most fonts by Alex Moseley. Dan X.

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Dick Pape based the following digitizations of blackletter, art deco, Celtic, initial caps, and other ornamental typefaces shown by Dan X. Download page. Italian architect in Viterbo who is interested in typography. In , he tried to design a typeface and called it Pince-Nez. He was working on Guido , a free typeface based on the Italian gothic letterforms roughly speaking, a blend between blackletter and chancery , or gotica corsiva used in the fourteenth century for books such as Dante's Divine Comedy.

Flickr page. Capo studied at the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Firenze. Born in Buenos Aires in Buenos Aires-based designer at T26 of Ultranova and Overlock , liquid display face. Linotype designer of the simple-shaped Cineplex family , and FontFont designer of FF Jackie , a fifties-style connected script typeface see also here and Duet Sans whose weights are called Liviana, Liviana cursiva, Redonda, Cursiva, Negrita, Negrita cursiva, Extra negra, Extra negra cursiva, Monocaja.

Creator of Balthazar Malena, Overlock , rounded sans and Basile , a chancery script appeared at Tipo. Creator at Google Web Fonts of Galdeano , a flared sans face. MyFonts interview. Dear Alison [Alison Argento]. Travel writer based in Cherry Hill, NJ. Designer b. Augusta, ME, of the children's scribble font Urly Lurnin , and of Smiley , comic book face , and of the informal handwriting fonts Pickled Sans , Slim Pickens , Smokehouse and Gladly Mailed Bender Script is a brush script developed from an incomplete script drawn by Charles Chas Bluemlein.

Barnstormer Script is a sign painter typeface. Gonte is a sketchbook script typeface.

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David and Jacko: The Janitor and The Serpent (Serbian Cyrillic Edition) (Serbian Edition) [David Downie, Tea Seroya, Jelena Dencic] on xysagarevefe.tk *FREE*. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. David Downie is a children's book author who keeps David and Jacko: The Janitor and The Serpent (Serbian Cyrillic Edition) - Kindle edition by David Downie, Tea Seroya, Jelena Dencic. Download it.

Saskya is a rough chancery script. Glade is a formal calligraphic copperplate script in five widths. In , she designed the architectural lettering typeface Robard , the brush script typeface Beckford Script and the ballpoint pen script Generous Hospitality. Dick Pape [Dan X. Solo: Digitizations by Dick Pape].

A list compiled by Ludwig M. Peter Doerling's visual overview of the styles of writing in Germany, for books, official documents Urkunden and in letters. For books, he takes us here: Roman capitals. For official documents: Roman capitals. For letters: Roman capitals. Brenden C. Roemich's Winnipeg-based foundry. They sold fonts at 10 to 20 USD a shot, but made them free starting in , when they quit the font foundry business. Direct download. Local download. Designer of Black Chancery with Earl Allen, in Designer of Black Chancery with Doug Miles, in See also here.

Edward Philip Prince. English punchcutter active from to , associated with seemingly the whole of the blossoming private press movement in England and America, b. For the Doves Press he cut the revivals of Jenson's type that stimulated an interest in 15th century printing in the wider printing industry. This Doves type was later thrown into the River Thames by an upset Cobden-Sanderson, over a protracted argument about its authorship. Prince's major design failure is worth noting. The roman design was not a problem, for Prince had cut similar designs for the Kelmscott and Doves presses.

The italic presented a new challenge though. Based on a type used in a work of Tagliente, this was the first attempt to recut a chancery italic. Despite help from Edward Johnston, Prince was seemingly unable to do interpret the design, and demanded finished drawings from Johnston, which the Englishman - in accordance with his views on the nature of craftsmanship - was not inclined to provide. It is instructive to note a confession Prince made to Kessler, characterizing himself as "a craftsman carrying out other men's designs". For Kelmscott Press, William Morris a founder of the Arts and Crafts movement and a forerunner of the influential private press movement in Europe and Edward Prince master engraver designed Golden Type , a robust typeface made after the roman by Nicolas Jenson [ Charles Leonard : The Golden Type was one of the most influential of the 19th century, but doesn't hold a candle to the Venetian revival typefaces that quickly followed.

Knuth for TeX. By Jackowski and Nowacki, this is a major undertaking. Jackowski and J. Kurier and Iwona. Kurier was designed in pre-computing times by Malgorzata Budyta, digitized and extended by Janusz M. He went on to design Iwona, which is based on Kurier. Iwona is named after Janusz's daughter.

Cyklop , a two-style sans headline typeface by Nowacki based on a s type by the "Odlewnia Czcionek J. Idzkowski i S-ka" type foundry in Warsaw. Gary Elfring's company in Wasco, IL, which was founded in , sold many fonts in the early s, often adaptations of well-known fonts. It is presently based in St. Charle, IL. An oriental simulation face, EchoCaps , is here. Dafont carries some of their free fonts, including the futuristic typeface Earth On-line course notes by Andrew Zurcher based on Martin Billingsley's The pens excellencie or the secretaries delighte Secretary an offshoot of the court hands of the beginning of the C16 early-, mid-, late-Tudor, Jacobean Italic created in Italy c.

Outfit known for its formal script fonts which all have "ES" in their names. Most all? Esa Anttikoski [Minority languages of Russia on the Net]. Vatican calligrapher who created Lettera Cancellaresca Formata. This inspired Raffaelo Bertieri at Nebiolo to cast the typeface Ruano in Initially, it offered fresh free designs of classics. In , it went commercial. Their fonts: Bodoni Flnk.

CNR lineare : athletic lettering. Didot Flnk. Doppio Senso : inspired by the traffic signal typeface in Italy, Transport D.

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Elettra A transitional typeface with extra long serifs and several didone traits. For display work. Flanker : classical roman face. Flanker Garaldus Based on a font by Aldo Novarese. Griffo Flnk : A multistyle family after typefaces like Bembo. Imperator : a classical roman face. Italian Typewriter A family of monospaced typewriter typefaces based on Italian typewriters of the thirties and forties. Lello : another classical roman face. Magnificat : after Friedrich Peter's ornamental font from Free download at Dafont. Marantz : fat art deco face, after the logo of the sound system company.

Marlboro Flnk : ultra condensed and tall. Poliphili This is a serious attempt at a revival of the elegant typeface used in Hypnerotomachia Poliphili , publ. Aldus Manutius that was cut by Francesco da Bologna. That roman font in turn was a revised version of the type used in for Pietro Bembo's De Aetna. Flanker Ruano Based on a chancery typeface by Raffaelo Bertieri Selene A monoline sans. Shock to the system : an original in the cyberpunk style.

Sony : after the Sony logo letters. There's nothing money can't buy : a sans. Titano : an original art deco sans family. Total Eclipse : futuristic. Traiano : Trajan column style. Travertino : a sans workhorse family. The fonts then were slightly different. Most fonts have Greek and Cyrillic letters as well.

View Leonardo Di Lena's typefaces. Collection of typefaces at Letraset. Commercial fonts, and free demos in all formats. A partial list of fonts: Square Text old English. Block Letters orthography for kids , Skryptaag , educational. Boulons letters made from nuts and bolts. Morse code. Dictionary phonetic notation for pronunciation. The monospaced fonts Bordofixed, Dactylographe , Normafixed, Oloron fixed width screen font. The mathy fonts Oloron program, Hexalist and Numberslist. The pixel font 8-PinMatrix.

The Bauhaus font BabyFace. The Chinese simulation font Chinoiseries. The Greek simulation font Grecques. Alternate URL for his shareware typefaces. MyFonts link for his commercial typefaces. Alternate MyFonts link. Other typefaces: Magenta Latte, Glamour Beauty , Traveler dry brush style , Electric Vibe dry brush script , Nouvele Louisela sic: this renaissance typeface was influenced by the chancery hand , Valencia Sans , brush script , Burnts Marker , a dry marker script , Celestial , pure Victoriana , Borderland Typefaces from Hey Fonallia, Liondales.

Mac postscript fonts. Sold by Universal Fount Co. Some free fonts on the web include MacHumaine , uncial. Italian calligrapher and scribe whose Cancellaresca moderna from in Sienna influenced Cancellaresca , Gilles Le Corre. Spanish lettering master in the 16th century who wrote Arte de Escrevir Madrid, [Paulo Heitlinger says that this is , while others mention ] , in which he introduced the so-called Spanish Bastarda.

Francisco Lucas Llana Regular A chancery hand by Pia Frauss. She writes Written in Madrid in , by a man called Francisco Lucas. He classified it as a Bastarda; but actually, it is a humanist cursive -- the type of writing that is mostly known under the name of Chancery. A chancery hand. Scans: Grifa italica and Batarda , Redondilla , Letra. Frederic Warde. New York, He had met Beatrice Becker in and they married in December Warde was Printer for Princeton University The couple moved to England in late for Warde had been offered work by the typographer Stanley Morison, designing for The Fleuron and the Monotype Recorder.

The marriage did not last; they separated in , and quickly divorced, though the break-up was an amicable one. He had his name changed several times, first his last name to Warde, and then his first name first to Frederique and then to Frederic. Warde worked as production manager for the American office of the Oxford University Press from until his death in His typographic work: Based on the fifteenth century letters of Nicolas Jenson, Centaur originally called Arrighi was first designed by Bruce Rogers in for the Metropolitan Museum, and parts of the typeface like the italic were done by Warde in Warde was inspired by the italic forms on the Italica of Ludovico Vicentino, a 16th century typeface.

However, his capitals are more freely formed not vertical, for example. Warde designed a revival of the chancery cursive letter forms of Renaissance calligrapher Ludovico degli Arrighi. This italic, titled Arrighi , was designed as a companion to Bruce Roger's roman typeface Centaur. Many ornaments in this book have been digitized; see, e.

Warde also published the following privately in with Stanley Morison: The calligraphic models of Ludovico degli Arrighi, surnamed Vicentino - a complete facsimile and introduction by Ludovico degli Arrighi. Wiki page. Freeman Jerry Craw. Or Freeman Godfrey Craw. He died in Excerpts of his obituary in the Star Ledger: Graphic artist and designer renowned internationally as innovator in visual identity field, created many recognizable typefaces that bear his name. Craw had lived in Tinton Falls since Prior to that, he had been a long-time resident of Short Hills, N.

Known to family and friends as Jerry, he forged a highly distinguished and decorated career in graphic art, calligraphy, and topography. Born and raised in East Orange, N. In , he joined Tri-Arts Press Inc. In that capacity, he had complete graphic control over the most interesting and impressive printing produced in the U. During this time, he created unique visual identity programs for numerous prestigious business and institutional clients, including CBS and IBM. In , he left Tri-Arts to establish his own company, Freeman Craw Design as a specialist in design-for-printing.

As an independent design consultant and art director, Jerry maintained a full-time office of designers and artists to better serve the complete needs of his clientele. He provided a broad range of graphic and production services, including photography, typography, illustration, composition, platemaking and printing.

He also served as manager of production and graphics for Rockefeller University Press at that time. Jerry was considered one of the best graphic artists in the world, and his body of work has been described by colleagues and industry insiders as "legendary. Jerry's calligraphic works were held in such high regard that permanent collections were established at the of the Museum of Modern Art and the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of New York, a division of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Additionally, in , he was a founding member of the Type Directors Club, which today is still the leading international organization devoted to excellence in topography. He was also the recipient of numerous national and international awards and citations for excellence in graphic design. His obituary contains this paragraph about Jerry's great personality: Jerry was warmhearted, gregarious, and passionate about his art. His intelligence and gentle nature always shined through. He was good humored, loved to be around people, and always seemed to get along with everyone, even strangers.

He considered himself a "hopeless Francophile," and was heavily influenced by School of Paris painters like Degas, Braque, Picasso, and particularly Modigliani. Having traveled extensively throughout France, he developed a keen appreciation of French culture, French architecture and, of course, French wine. He even taught himself the language and became fluent in it.

Jerry loved a good bottle of Chateauneuf du Pape, but would love sharing it with family and friends even more. His warmth, humor, and creativity will be sorely missed by all who knew and loved him. Craw has commented that as a designer of type he faced different problems than as a designer with type. Perhaps this and the alleged rush production resulted in unfortunate compromise, as some sizes are small for the body, with excess shoulder.

Otherwise they are excellent and deservedly popular typefaces. The normal widths are also made by Monotype. Also see Clarendon. Craw Modern It is a very wide face, with large x-height and short ascenders and descenders, otherwise somewhat the character of Bodoni but a little less formal. These typefaces have the same general proportions and some of the general design characteristics as the same artist's Craw Clarendon, but the similarity ends there and the typefaces should not be considered part of the same family. Compare Modern Roman.

Litho series. Digital versions include Craw Modern , Group Type. Ad Lib ATF, This was revived as Ad Lib in by SoftMaker. Bitstream's version is simply called Ad Lib. Vladimir Pavlikov made a Cyrillic version at Paratype in Mac McGrew writes: Ad Lib is an irregular, novel gothic letter, designed by Freeman Craw in for American Type Founders, probably in response to the new-found freedom of photolettering techniques.

The effect, suggestive of a woodcut technique, was reportedly achieved by cutting the letters out of a black sheet material with scissors. The complete font as shown features alternate designs for a number of characters; in addition, it is aligned so that several characters can be inverted to form additional alternates, such as u for n and vice versa. It is made only in three sizes. The alternate characters were later discontinued. Samoa, a nineteenth-century typeface, had somewhat similar invertible characters.

He received a TDC medal in for lifetime achievement in typography. Link at TDC. Gary Munch [MunchFonts]. Flemish cartographer, b. Rupelmonde as Gheert Cremer , Educated at the University of Leuven, the alma mater of Luc Devroye, he lived in Duisburg now Germany from and is remembered for the Mercator chart named after him. Author of Literarum Latinarum, quas Italicas cursorias que vocant, scribendarum ratio , which contains some beautiful alphabets, and teaches cursive writing [see Cursiv Latein ]. Digital mapmaking fonts based on Mercator's chancery hand include Mercator , Arthur Baker ; see also the P22 version from , and Ribbon Cursive , Natsuko Hayashida.

A full scan of Gerardus Mercator's cosmographic atlas. View typefaces related to Mercator. A list of typefaces related to Mercator. More typefaces based on Mercator's chancery hand. Gert Wiescher [Wiescher Design]. Giovambattista Palatino [Libro di M. Giovambattista Palatino cittadino romano]. Giovanantonio Tagliente. Or Giovanni Antonio Tagliente. Calligrapher and writing master, born in Venice, Author of Lo presente libro insegna la vera arte de lo excellente scrivere de diverse varie sorti de litere Sample images from that penmanship book, which includes scripts for Latin, Hebrew and Greek: i , ii , iii , iv.

Picture of Tagliente's title page of his book in PDF of his work by Toni Pecoraro. Stanley Morison's metal Bembo is based on Tagliente's letters. Bitstream's Aldine is the first digital take of Bembo, which is attributed jointly to F. Griffo and G. JY Aetna is Jack Yan's version. Ita's legend stresses physical austerity and includes some rather fantastic miracles.

Jerome's Latin biography of Paul may be the translation of a Greek legend featuring centaurs and satyrs. Tradition has the young Paul going into the Egyptian desert to escape the persecution of Emperor Decius, who ruled But he lived there in a cave for the rest of his long life. Nearing death, he was visited by the hermit St. Antony, who buried him in a cloak from St. Two lions were said to have helped dig Paul's grave, and they stand with him in church art.

Anthony of Egypt c.

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From the age of about 20 until his death at , he lived as a hermit in remote hilltop and desert locations. What is known about him comes from a life written by St. Athanasius of Alexandria. He cultivated a garden, wove rush mats, and fought many temptations and demons.

He is the patron of basket and brush makers, butchers and gravediggers. Sulpice died c. When he became bishop of Bourges in Aquitaine in , he defended the rights of his people against the tyrannical Merovingian kings. Known for his austerity and holiness, Sulpice was beloved in Bourges for his generosity and was said to have converted everyone there to Christianity through his personal witness.

He attended the Council of Clichy in , and resigned as bishop of Bourges late in life to serve the poor. The enormous Church of Saint-Sulpice, near the Luxembourg gardens in Paris, and a famous French seminary are named for this holy bishop. When her father suggested a dispensation for her to marry the king of Bohemia, Margaret threatened to cut off her nose and lips. Her excesses in convent life, from demeaning tasks to severe fasting and sleep deprivation, led to ecstatic trances and an early death. She was not canonized until , when Hungary needed relief from Nazi oppressors.

Fabian died FEAST January 20 A Roman layman not thought to be under consideration, Fabian was elected pope in after a dove landed on his head during the conclave. He divided Rome into seven ecclesiastical districts, with a deacon in charge of each, and brought the bodies of the martyrs Sts. Pontian and Hippolytus from Sardinia to Rome for reburial. He was among the first martyrs in the persecution of Emperor Decius, who ruled Cyprian called Fabian "an incomparable man, the glory of whose death corresponded with holiness of his life. Sebastian died c. Though a Christian, he joined the imperial army at Rome about He made converts of officials and jailers, effected cures and urged Christian prisoners to stay strong in their faith.

He was named captain of the praetorian guards, but the emperor, upon finding out that he was a Christian, ordered his execution. Shot with arrows and left for dead, Sebastian survived and was nursed back to life. Later, he denounced the emperor for his cruelty to Christians, and the emperor had him beaten to death. A favorite subject of Renaissance artists, Sebastian is the patron saint of archers, soldiers and athletes.

Agnes Died c. According to tradition, she refused to consider marrying and consecrated her maidenhood to God. When a persecution broke out, she left home and offered herself for martyrdom, probably dying by being stabbed in the throat, a common form of Roman execution.

She was buried in a cemetery on the Via No mentana, where a church honoring her was built about Her name and feast date were listed in a calendar of martyrs in She is the patron of girls. He was ordained and taught there. But, in he received permission to live in a nearby forest.

His fame as a holy and austere hermit attracted many visitors. Meinrad is honored as a martyr. He initially paid the fees for Laura and her sister to attend a school run by the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians. However, he stopped when Laura rebuffed his sexual advances, and she and her sister worked to pay the fees themselves. Even as a youth he was devoted to Mary and the poor. Ordained in , he taught theology at La Sapienza University before dedicating himself to religious and charitable works in collaboration with laypeople.

In the Society of the Catholic Apostleship, or Pallottine Fathers, emerged from his work, and an order for women also was founded. He discovered in the world of laypeople a great capacity for good work. She entered the Sisters of St. Francis in Syracuse, N. In , they opened a home on Molokai for women and girls with the disease, and continued the work of St.

Damien de Veuster after his death. Mother Marianne died on Molokai; her feast is her birthday. He spent four years reconverting Catholics who had become Calvinists, writing many tracts to explain basic tenets of the faith. In he became bishop of Geneva, which he reorganized and reformed. He also famously preached in Paris and wrote two devotional books that are still widely read.

A year friendship with St. Jane Frances de Chantal led to their founding the Order of the Visitation. Canonized in and declared a doctor of the church in , Francis is the patron saint of journalists, authors and the deaf. The dramatic story of St. He shares a feast with St. Peter on June Now, it appropriately closes the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity. Paul is the patron saint of Greece, Malta and the Cursillo movement. Another widow introduced her to St. Jerome, a priest and papal secretary to St. Jerome became her spiritual director, urging a life of asceticism and charity.

When he learned she was fluent in Greek, he enlisted her help in translating Greek biblical texts for his new Latin version of the Bible. She taught herself Hebrew, and exhausted her wealth building a monastery, three convents and a hospital in Bethlehem. Paul, who called him "my true child in faith. Based on Paul's request in 1 Timothy for him to stay in Ephesus, he is considered the first bishop of Ephesus. According to a fourth-century manuscript, he was martyred in 97 for opposing pagan celebrations. Timothy shares his feast with Titus, another of Paul's companions.

As a Franciscan tertiary, she performed good works and taught catechism to girls in her home in Desenzano del Garda. Two visions inspired her to found a congregation dedicated to the religious training of young women; she began this mission with a school in Brescia.

Earlier she had endured an episode of blindness while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and had rejected a papal request to run all charities in Rome. In , she founded the Ursulines and served as superior until her death. This mystic, a patron of catechists, reportedly was fascinated from childhood by the legend of St.

Ursula, an early virgin-martyr. But he would not yield, and studied under St. Albert the Great, becoming a master of theology in For the rest of his brief life, the "dumb ox," as he was dubbed, taught, preached and wrote, producing the monumental "Summa Theologica.

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Gildas the Wise c. He also reportedly lived as a hermit on an island in the Bristol Channel, visited Ireland and had as his disciples such famous Irish monks as St. Finnian of Clonard, and finished his ministry and life in Brittany, where he founded a monastery at Rhuys. He was ordained a diocesan priest in , but found parish work too easy. He joined the Divine Word missionaries and was sent with another priest to China. By , Joseph was teaching 1, catechumens in villages.

The Verbites built a seminary and began training Chinese priests. Joseph fled once during the Boxer Rebellion, then stayed in China, gaining converts and serving as provincial and administrator. His health was broken in an outbreak of typhus. Savina died c. Savina provided aid and comfort for Christian prisoners in the jails of Mediolanum, now the city of Milan, and helped give them decent burials after they were executed. She was put to death while in prayer at the tomb of Sts.

Nabor and Felix, who also martyred at Mediolanum during the reign of Diocletian. But he persevered and entered the Congregation of Clerks Regular of St. Paul, or Barnabites, though the conflict prompted a long illness. He was ordained in , serving as superior of two colleges for 15 years and in other posts.

More and more he exercised his priesthood by hearing confessions, and his health was affected. He was seen as a living saint; one miracle attributed to him was stopping the flow of lava from an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Ordained a priest in , he was sent to study theology in Turin, where he became a magnet for neglected youths during a turbulent period of rapid industrialization and revolutionary politics.

Don Bosco, who once hoped to become a foreign missionary, founded the Salesians in The order sheltered more than orphan boys, then opened workshops for shoemakers, tailors, bookbinders and other trades. When he died, more than 40, people in Turin filed past his coffin to show their love and respect. Brigid of Kildare c. However, one fact from her earliest biography in the seventh century remains unchallenged: She was superior of a double monastery -- for nuns and monks -- at Kildare in the years after St. Patrick's death.

Accounts of her life parallel that of Jesus, including miraculous events. She remained Catholic despite her Calvinist mother, and married Gaston de Montferrant, with whom she had four children. After being widowed in she briefly joined a Cistercian convent. Later, after a period of nursing plague victims and teaching girls, she founded the Sisters of Notre Dame of Bordeaux, known then as the Company of Mary Our Lady.

She was vindicated in a conspiracy devised by one of her own nuns, but she declined to be reappointed superior. In he began evangelizing in Denmark but was forced by political events to return to Corvey. This talented preacher went next to Sweden. In he was named abbot of Corvey and archbishop of Hamburg, where for 13 years he organized missions to Denmark, Sweden and Norway, built churches and a library.

After Hamburg was sacked by Vikings in , Anskar was appointed to the see of Bremen, where he is buried. For a time Blaise lived in a cave to escape persecution. On his feast the church recalls a miracle cure associated with him and celebrates the blessing of the throats. Blaise apparently saved the life of a boy who was choking on a fish bone. The saint said that anyone who lit a candle in his memory would be free of infection, thus candles are used in the traditional throat blessing. He is listed among the Fourteen Holy Helpers, saints revered as healers. Werburga c. Though much of her story is romantic legend, she was charged with establishing a rule of strict observance at several women's religious houses in the Midlands and reportedly died at a nunnery at Threckingham.

She was buried at Hanbury, but her remains were moved to Chester, possibly to save them from marauding Danes. She was mistreated by both men, and reportedly was physically handicapped from birth, though she may have been merely undersized and plain. Thereafter Joan lived in Bourges, where she devoted herself to prayer and good works, and established, under Franciscan direction, the Order of the Annunciation with 11 local schoolgirls.

A year before her death, she renounced all her possessions, including her title as Duchess of Berry. She was canonized in His forte was preaching and in he went as a missionary to Constantinople Istanbul, Turkey to minister to Christian galley slaves. After recovering from the plague, he was arrested for preaching to Muslims. He was sentenced to death but he survived being hanged from a gibbet with a hook through one hand and one foot.

He was banished and returned to Leonessa. He lived austerely for another 20 years, sometimes preaching as many as 10 times a day, until he died of cancer. He was beatified in and canonized in The Sicilian-born virgin supposedly was martyred during the persecution of Emperor Decius, who ruled She was sent to a brothel to force her to repudiate a vow of chastity, but she remained steadfast and her breasts were cut off. Healed when St. Peter appeared to her in prison, she died a few days later from further torture.

Her saintly cult spread, and she was added to the Roman Canon of the Mass about He was arrested by the acting governor of Japan, who feared Christian missionaries were part of a conquest ploy by Spain and Portugal. Paul and 25 of his companions were taken to a hill overlooking Nagasaki Bay, bound to crosses and executed Feb.

The place was named "Hill of the Martyrs" and is marked with a stone cross and 26 trees. Because of his orders, 26 Christians had their left ears cut off, were marched through towns with blood dripping from their heads, then were crucified and pierced with lances on a hill outside Nagasaki. The martyrs were Franciscans, Jesuits, Japanese laymen and one Korean; their bloody garments were kept as relics.


Paul Miki, a distinguished preacher who was the son of a samurai, was the most prominent of the Japanese Jesuits. The martyrs were canonized in ; their feast was added to the General Roman Calendar in Hearing of his goodness, the bishop of Toul ordained him a priest. On the journey, Vedast restored the sight of a blind beggar, confirming the king's new faith.

Vedast helped Remigius evangelize the Franks and became bishop of Arras in Vandals had left the city in ruins, but over the next 40 years Vedast built up a flourishing church. This French saint had a large following in England. Known for his pastoral commitment and eucharistic and Marian devotions, he rose from Vatican diplomat in Chile to archbishop of Spoleto and Imola, to cardinal. He was elected pope in His plus-year papacy, the longest in history, was marked by the loss of the Papal States during Italian unification, the convening of the First Vatican Council, and the declaration of the Immaculate Conception as a dogma of faith.

He also restored Catholic hierarchy in England and Holland, sent missionaries to the North Pole and Asia, and condemned modern heresies. He was beatified in She entered and left several religious orders, then lived as an anchorite, or hermit, for three years.

Eventually, she discerned that God wanted her to return Franciscan religious to their original rule of strict poverty. Considered the founder of the Colettine Poor Clares, Colette also helped inaugurate reforms among Franciscan friars. After reportedly saving the life of a woman dying in childbirth, Colette was considered a patron of expectant mothers. Jerome Emiliani c. He was captured and chained in a dungeon, but promised himself to God if released. That he later was able to walk out of his prison was considered miraculous.

He was ordained in When the plague struck, he cared for the sick and opened an orphanage. In , he and two fellow priests formed the Clerks Regular Somaschi, now known as the Somascan Fathers. Jerome was declared the patron saint of orphaned and abandoned children in Josephine Bakhita c. A Muslim owner named her Bakhita, meaning "lucky"; other owners included an Arab chieftain and a Turkish general. She endured years of cruelty, even torture, before being sold to an Italian consul who planned to free her. He took her to Italy, where she worked as a nanny for another family. In she won her freedom in court.

She was baptized Josephine, entered the Canossian Sisters and served her order in Italy for more than 50 years as a cook, seamstress and doorkeeper. Her death was described by St. Augustine later said she must have been directed in this by the Holy Spirit. The patron of dentists, Apollonia is also invoked for toothaches and gum disease. Though his family initially opposed it, year-old Francisco joined the Institute in , becoming Brother Miguel.

He taught Spanish and religion in Quito for 38 years, wrote a number of well-regarded textbooks and was elected to several national academies. Scholastica c. Benedict, were born to a wealthy Christian family in Nursia, Italy. Details of their lives come from the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great. After Benedict established his monastery at Monte Cassino, she founded a convent at Plombariola, and was its abbess for many years. The siblings met once a year outside Monte Cassino.

A violent storm ensued and Benedict had to stay. They spent the night discussing the joys of heaven, and she died three days later. Scholastica is the patron saint of Benedictine nuns and convulsive children. Lourdes is still the most famous Marian shrine in Western Europe. Pope Gregory II c. He accompanied Pope Constantine to Constantinople and helped resolve doctrinal and disciplinary problems that arose at a church council.

Because of this wisdom and experience, he was elected pope and consecrated a bishop in He tried to slow the progress of the Germanic Lombard people into Italy and fell our with the Eastern emperor over excessive taxation. He sent St. Boniface to evangelize Germany and consecrated him a bishop. Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of Western monasticism, St. Benedict of Aniane influenced the shape of Benedictine monasticism more than anyone else. He promulgated a monastic reform that lasted nearly two centuries.

At age 20, Benedict became a monk, adopting a severe pattern of life. He founded a monastery on the river Aniane that exercised influence over many abbeys in France and Germany. Louis the Pious had Benedict generate a monastic reform throughout the empire. He codified all monastic rules and improved monastic observance and discipline. Catherine entered the Dominican convent at Prato, Italy. As a young nun, she became mistress of novices and at 30 she became prioress for life. She became famous for her sound teaching, which she communicated in letters.

From to , Catherine received an extraordinary ecstasy. From noon on Thursdays through 4 p. Although unconscious, her movements coincided with his -- she stood solemnly at the scourging, bowed to be crowned with thorns, extended her arms to be nailed to the cross and so on. The stigmata also marked her body. Embarrassed by these phenomena, in she and her nuns prayed that the ecstasies would cease and they did.

Catherine died in About , after ordination, they went as missionaries to Moravia, where they had considerable success, partly because they knew the Slavonic language. But their mission was challenged by Germans seeking to dominate in the area. In , Cyril died in Rome and Methodius was consecrated bishop and returned to his mission.

He was imprisoned by the Germans for two years until the pope won his release. He died in The brothers are associated with Mass in the vernacular, the Cyrillic alphabet and Slavonic literature. Their lives have no connection to the contemporary holiday. The bishop, known for healing, was martyred earlier. After ordination, he preached in Lyon. In , he was named rector of the college at Paray-le- Monial and became confessor of the visionary Sister Margaret Mary Alacoque. He helped her spread devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

In he was sent to London and reconciled many Catholics to the church they had abandoned. He was arrested and expelled in connection with an alleged plot to kill the king, and died upon returning to France. He converted and baptized King Olaf of Sweden in , and also preached in Denmark.

In works of art Sigfrid is sometimes depicted holding the heads of his three nephews, who reportedly were left in charge of his diocese and decapitated by marauding pagans. In he made his way to China's interior, where he served for 30 years despite language and communications problems, a harsh climate and local rivalries.

All foreign missionaries were targeted in the persecution. He evaded arrest for a while, but was imprisoned, tortured and strangled. His Feb. They were executed during sporadic persecutions by warlords, local mandarins and provincial governors. The religiously motivated deaths occurred from the 17th to the 20th centuries. The martyrs were Catholic bishops, priests, nuns, brothers, seminarians, and lay women and men.

They also represented several religious orders: Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, Jesuits and Lazarists. Servites Founders 13th Century FEAST February 17 Around , seven Florentine laymen -- two married, two widowed, three single, all merchants and members of a Marian confraternity -- abandoned homes, jobs and wealth for a life of poverty, prayer and penance at Monte Senario.

Within a few years, they had formed the Order of Friar Servants of Mary, or Servites, which received formal papal approval in Seven Servite Founders 13th century FEAST February 17 In , seven Florentine laymen -- two married, two widowed, three single, all well-known merchants and members of a Marian confraternity -- abandoned homes, jobs and wealth for a life of poverty, prayer and penance at Monte Senario, where they built a chapel and hermitage.

Within a few years, they had formed the Order of Friar Servants of Mary, or Servites, a mendicant order that received formal papal approval in Alexis, who out of modesty refused ordination, served the order in various ways as a lay brother; he outlived the other founders and reportedly died at age Theodore Tiro died c. Theodore was identified as a martyr from the fourth century.

Reputedly a Roman soldier wintering at Pontus in Asia Minor, he refused to worship Roman gods and burned a pagan temple. Despite cruel tortures, he was steadfast in his faith and was burned to death. Aspects of his legend are depicted in windows at the Cathedral of Chartres in France and in mosaics at St. Mark's in Venice. Blessed Fra Angelico c. After joining the Dominicans in , he began illustrating manuscripts and choir books, beginning each new work with a prayer. His religious altarpieces, paintings and frescoes exploited color for spatial and emotional effect.

He is patron of artists. As a teen she entered two religious orders, but illness and family poverty forced her to withdraw. In she became a domestic for a priest, and later for a countess. After her parents died in , she founded a congregation in Bergamo dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament and the education of girls. Taking the name Gertrude, she was the first superior of the Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament, which grew rapidly despite early difficulties.

She was beatified in He championed Irish monastic customs and Celtic rites in his three years there. In he attended the Synod of Whitby, which decided the dating of Easter, style of tonsure, role of local bishops, and relationship between English churches and Rome. Colman defended the Irish way, but lost to St. Wilfrid, bishop of York, who preferred Roman rites. Colman resigned his see and returned to Ireland, where he founded monasteries in Galway and Mayo, serving as abbot of both until his death. Mary asked the shepherd children to promote devotion to her Immaculate Heart and pray the rosary daily.

Both Martos died of influenza, Francisco at age 10 in , and Jacinta at age 9 in Their cousin, who became a Carmelite nun, died in at age He reluctantly left a hermit's life to take charge of his religious community and establish five hermitages in Italy. Later, as bishop of Ostia, he was involved in important church events, yet he pleaded to be allowed to return to the solitary prayer life.

Peter is credited with many spiritual writings. To a bishop he once wrote, "let your lips continually ruminate something from the scriptures. After her lover died violently, Margaret and her illegitimate child were given a home by the Franciscans in Cortona. She became a Franciscan tertiary and practiced severe self-denial. Until her son grew up, she earned their living and performed works of charity. Her prayers and counsel prompted many conversions, and she was considered a living saint.

Polycarp c. Representing the Asia Minor churches, he went to Rome about to discuss when to celebrate Easter. The result was that the Eastern and Western churches continued to calculate the date as before. Shortly after his return, Polycarp was arrested and urged to renounce God. He refused and was sentenced to be burned alive.

When the flames did not harm him, he was killed by a sword, as recounted in an early Christian document. Ethelbert of Kent c. A condition of his marriage to Bertha, daughter of the king of Paris, was that she would be free to practice her Christian faith. Ethelbert assisted St. Augustine of Canterbury, sent by Pope St. Gregory the Great to evangelize Britain, by giving him land for churches and a monastery. He became a Christian about , but never forced any of his subjects to convert. Nestor died circa FEAST February 25 As bishop of Magydus, in the Roman province Pamphylia now Turkey , Nestor was forced to deal with an edict from Emperor Decius, requiring all citizens to sacrifice to Roman gods and produce a certificate to that effect or suffer imprisonment and torture.

Many Christians turned to pagan ways to save themselves, but Nestor would not, though he did send many of people into hiding. When Nestor told his torturers he would be ever with Christ, they crucified him. According to tradition, pagans and Christians knelt together in prayer during his martyrdom. Alexander when he became bishop of Alexandria in His biggest difficulty was his controversy with Arius, who thought he should have been chosen bishop.

Arius began to teach that Christ was not truly God, that he was a creature who did not always exist and was capable of sinning. When discussions with local clergy failed to convince Arius of his error, Alexander had a synod of Egyptian bishops condemn and excommunicate him.

Then Arius flooded the East with propaganda in his defense that prompted the Emperor Constantius I to intervene. He sent Hosius, his adviser, to Alexandria and he, along with Alexander, convened a council at Nicea in that condemned the Arian heresy. Alexander died in Anne Line c. Anne Heigham and her brother were disowned by their Protestant father for converting to Catholicism.

She married another disinherited convert, Roger Line, who died in exile in Flanders in Left penniless and always in poor health, Anne began working with Jesuits in London, where she organized and operated safe houses for priests and embroidered vestments. She took voluntary vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Within one month, February , she was arrested, tried at the Old Bailey, convicted of hiding a priest, and hanged at Tyburn. Anne is a patron of the childless, widows and converts.

Baldomerus died c. When the abbot of Saint-Just encountered him, he was so impressed by his devotion and knowledge of Scriptures that he offered Baldomerus a cell in his monastery. There he lived a life of contemplation and, though he did not seek it, was ordained a subdeacon. He greeted all he met with this prayer: "In the name of God, let us give thanks always. Educated at the Jesuit college in Spoleto, he was seriously ill twice and vowed to become a religious if he recovered.

He served dutifully, with great piety and cheerfulness, dying from tuberculosis at the age of But the foreign missions beckoned. For health reasons he returned to France, where he raised money for a new cathedral in Dakar, Senegal. During World War I he volunteered as a chaplain and spent 52 months at the front without being wounded. From until the end of his life, he helped restore and run an orphanage in a Paris suburb. He was beatified in , and is the patron of orphans and abandoned children. Daniel ministered always under the protection of St.

Therese of Lisieux. He was a canon at Winchester Cathedral before becoming a priest and dean there. After continuing his studies and becoming a Benedictine in France, he returned to England and was named bishop of Worcester in He founded monasteries, promoted scholarship, established a great musical tradition in Worcester, replaced secular canons with monks, and also administered the Diocese of York from until his death. Devoted to the poor and revered for his sanctity, Oswald died after washing and kissing the feet of 12 poor men, his annual Lenten custom.

David of Wales c. According to legend, he was born to a Cardigan chieftan and St. Non, and founded 12 monasteries. Community life was austere, with monks doing manual labor, speaking only when necessary, eating bread and vegetables and drinking water. David's nickname was "man of water. His story comes entirely from a single biography written in But she was drawn to religious life and tried the Discalced Carmelites and Sisters of Charity, before illness forced her return to home and the shoe factory.

After patiently discerning a call to be poor among the poor, Angelita and three like-minded women moved into a small rented house in , forming the Company of the Cross. They prayed and meditated, but were always available to serve the poor and dying. Aidan at Lindisfarne, and served with St. Egbert in Ireland. In , he succeeded his brother, St. Cedd, as abbot at Lastingham, England. While still young, he was consecrated bishop of York by order of King Oswiu, but this was overturned by Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, who found the consecrating bishops unorthodox.

Chad resigned, and Theodore, touched by his humility, reconsecrated him as bishop of Mercia. Establishing his see at Lichfield, Chad was a good shepherd, preaching the Gospel in his far-flung diocese, often traveling on foot. Schooled mainly at home, she learned about injustice from her father, a juvenile court judge. Educating poor, neglected children became her mission, but she served anyone in need. In she founded the Congregation of the Sisters of St.

As superior general, Mother Angela guided the Felicians until Poor health marked her last 30 years. But he and others encouraged her to found a congregation to work among people of color. In , she and 13 companions became the first Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. For more than 40 years, she led the order, using her fortune to establish numerous missions and schools for Indians and African Americans.

Following a major heart attack in , she retired to a life of prayer. Canonized in , she is the patron of home missions. Known for his refusal to take up arms, personal piety, generosity to the poor and devotion to the Blessed Mother, he rejected the idea of marrying in favor of voluntary chastity.

During a visit to Lithuania, he fell ill, died from tuberculosis at the age of 25 and was buried in the cathedral in Vilnius. Canonized in , he is the patron of Poland and Lithuania. Agnes of Bohemia c. Their ambitions for Agnes to marry royalty were dashed by death, the machinations of other royals and Agnes' devotion to Christ. Finally, after several engagements, Agnes was able to dedicate herself to God. She built a Franciscan friary and hospital in Prague, then a convent for the poor Clares, which she joined in She spend the next 44 years in prayer and service, and was canonized in on the eve of the Czech "velvet revolution.

Perpetua and Felicity died FEAST March 7 Martyrs in Carthage, now in Tunisia, these young women — the noblewoman Perpetua and the slave Felicity — were among five catechumens who, after refusing to worship the Roman emperor, were arrested and condemned to be thrown to wild beasts. They were baptized in prison, where Felicity also gave birth to a daughter. In the Carthage arena, they were attacked by a beast, which did not kill them, so their throats were cut by a gladiator.

She was educated by Benedictines in Florence, but was drawn to the Carmelites there, joining at 17 and taking the name Teresa Margaret Marianna of the Sacred Heard. After praying successfully to Mary to cure her knee infection, she was professed in and became her Carmel's sacristan, then infirmarian, a job in which extraordinary events were attributed to her. She is seen as an 18th-century St. His conversion at about 40 took such extreme forms that he sometimes was confined for lunacy.

In he began the hospital work that brought him respect and renown. Thereafter, he devoted himself to sheltering and caring for the needy, including prostitutes and vagabonds. After his death, his followers were organized into the Hospitaller Order of St. John of God. Well educated at court, she joined a group of Franciscan tertiaries who later became Poor Clare nuns. In , she went back to Bologna as abbess of a new convent. From an early age, she had experienced visions, some of which she judged to be temptations.

But, she effectively led her convent, while also exploring a talent for calligraphy and painting miniatures. Her Bologna convent still has a breviary she penned and ornamented, along with some of her unpublished writings in prose and verse. In , their palazzo was pillaged by Neapolitan soldiers and Lorenzo was exiled for five years, returning home a broken man.

Frances, known for her great charity during epidemics and civil war, organized a ladies society dedicated to self-denial and good works. It became the Oblates of Tor de Specchi, which she directed for her last four years. She is the patron saint of motorists, perhaps because she was guarded for 23 years by an archangel visible only to her. He is beckoning me to follow. After founding churches in Cornwall and serving in monasteries in Wales and Ireland, he went as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland. He was abbot of Govan, before being killed by pirates.

His feast in Cornwall and Wales is March 9. After early sojourns with Franciscans and Salesians, he entered the seminary of the Diocese of Tortona and was ordained in Always devoted to the care of others, especially the poor and sick, Don Orione established schools and learning centers, worker hostels, hospitals, and homes for the elderly, disabled, sick and blind. He succeeded Pope St. Anastasius I in , and was seen as a capable leader during his year pontificate. He asserted the primacy of Rome among all sees and saw the pope as universal arbiter, especially concerning doctrine.

He told bishops in France and Spain that "greater causes" should be referred to Rome, promoted Rome's example of celibacy and confirmed the African bishops' condemnation of Pelagianism. He was pope when the Goths sacked Rome. Matilda c. Bruno, archbishop of Cologne.

During a year widowhood, this devout queen endured ill-treatment by sons Otto and Henry, who vied for power and complained of her almsgiving to the poor and religious communities she founded. By the time of her death, Matilda had given away everything but her own burial sheet. She was venerated immediately and often is pictured holding a church or bag of money.

He was ordained a Redemptorist priest at age 34 and served in Poland for 20 years, until , when Napoleon suppressed religious orders. He spent the rest of his life in Vienna, battling state control of the church, establishing a Catholic college, and working behind the scenes at the Congress of Vienna. He is the patron saint of Vienna.

Following his death in , and despite strained finances and bouts of melancholy, she was an active supporter of St. She drew up the first draft of their rule. By the time of her death, the order had established 40 houses in France, and Daughters of Charity were looking after the sick poor in Parisian parishes and sheltering hundreds of women. Patrick c. He was a lonely shepherd for six years before escaping and returning home. But his dream of converting the Irish pagans propelled him to priestly studies in Gaul now France , and about Pope Celestine I consecrated him bishop and sent him to Ireland.

For nearly 30 years he preached tirelessly, made countless converts, founded monasteries and established the primatial see at Armagh. Toward the end of his life he made a day retreat in Mayo that gave rise to the famous ongoing Croagh Patrick pilgrimages. Stories of him using the shamrock to explain the Trinity and driving snakes from the island are legend. Cyril of Jerusalem c. Raised and educated in Jerusalem, he was ordained by St. Maximus and succeeded him as bishop of Jerusalem around His episcopate lasted until his death, but he spent 16 years in exile, turned out by emperors influenced by the Arian bishop of Caesarea who claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Jerusalem.

The Council of Antioch sent St. Gregory of Nyssa to investigate Cyril and his diocese. He reported that Jerusalem was rife with factionalism and Arianism, but that Cyril was orthodox. This feast, which was celebrated locally as early as the ninth century, became a universal feast in the 16th century. Pope Pius IX named Joseph patron of the universal church in ; he is also the patron saint of carpenters, the dying and workers. Cuthbert c. He tended sheep and fought the Mercians, then became a monk at Melrose Abbey, and later its abbot. In he accompanied St. Eata to Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, off the northeastern coast of England, and later undertook long journeys on horseback or foot, ministering to Christians scattered around northern England and helping his monks accept Roman liturgical customs.

After living as a contemplative for nine years on a remote islet, he was elected bishop of Hexham in But he exchanged sees with Eata, becoming bishop of Lindisfarne. He is a patron of sailors and of Northumbria. Nicholas belonged to a lay association called the Friends of God, whose members sought closeness to Christ through a disciplined life.

At age 30, he married Dorothy Wissing, and during 20 happy years they had 10 children. Dorothy, also a member of the association, and the children released him. Nicholas spent the next 20 years in prayer and counseling visitors, including top leaders. In he resolved a conflict among the Swiss cantons that preserved the unity of the country. Nicholas became a lay Jesuit brother in He served St.

Edmund Campion and was once imprisoned for defending him against charges of treason. Later he was in the service of Henry Garnet, the Jesuit provincial, traveling with him, staying in the homes of recusants, where he constructed hiding holes for hunted priests. Nicholas built ingeniously conceived, impossible to find, hiding places that saved the lives of innumerable priests. He never discussed his work with anyone so that even under torture they would not be able to disclose the location of secret rooms.

After several brushes with officials, Nicholas gave himself up to protect other Jesuits. He was brutally tortured but never betrayed the locations of his brothers. He died March 22, In , though not yet a priest, he was named archbishop of Lima, Peru, with his episcopal ordination in Seville. After arriving in Lima in , his 25 years of missionary service included diocesan and provincial synods, visits around the vast diocese, clergy reforms, and Indian-language catechisms.

He also introduced European religious orders into Peru, opened the first seminary in the New World and encouraged Indians to become priests. This liturgical feast, first celebrated in the East, was introduced in Rome between and The revision of the Roman liturgical calendar restored the feast as a solemnity of the Lord and restored its ancient title.

But how an unnamed thief came to be called Dismas is less clear. Dismas is a patron of funeral directors, prisoners and repentent thieves. The institute, which came to be known as the Religious Teachers Filippini, is credited with the religious and social improvement of Italian women well before compulsory education. Margaret Clitherow c. Margaret soon became a Catholic and set up Mass centers in her home and a nearby inn.

She was imprisoned three times for failing to attend Protestant services. When officials confirmed the secret Masses, Margaret was sentenced to death for treason. She died a martyr, pressed to death by a heavy load. Courtiers of the Byzantine emperor, alarmed at his appearance and fearful of his influence, had him arrested and questioned as a spy. Basil would say only that he was a pilgrim and stranger on earth, but he denounced their immoral lifestyles.

According to his hagiography, he survived their cruel tortures and being thrown to a lion unharmed, and was saved from an official drowning by two dolphins. These miracles won him freedom. Thereafter, many of the faithful came to his hermitage for healing, prophecies and instruction. Basil reportedly lived to the age of At the urging of St. John Bosco and despite episcopal opposition, Francesco was ordained a priest at age In he founded a religious order to carry on his work, especially among young women, and continued to lecture at the university until his death.

Rupert of Salzburg died c. He was a successful evangelist in Bavaria, and from there extended his ministry along the Danube River. He was based at Salzburg, in Austria, where he built the first church, monastery and nunnery. One tradition also claimed he had established the salt mines of Salzburg, which he found as the ruins of the Roman town Juvavum.

Rupert is seen as one example of the devoted monastic bishop who evangelized the Germans. Hesychius was a priest who wrote about the Bible in the liturgy. Like St. Cyril of Jerusalem, he taught a realistic doctrine of the Eucharist, which he regarded as a sacrifice identical with that of the cross.

Hesychius taught that Christ was present to transform us through our inner absorption of his whole being. Berthold died c. Various legends had him born in Limoges, France, educated at the University of Paris, and participating in the Crusades in Turkey. What is known is that he directed a group of Frankish hermits living on Mount Carmel in Palestine in the second half of the 12th century. The existence on Mount Carmel of a church and hermitage in the spiritual tradition of the prophet Elijah is documented from on.

Brocard; Carmelite houses became well-established throughout Europe by Despite parental opposition, she joined the Hartmann Sisters, or Sisters of Christian Charity, a nursing order, taking the name Maria Restituta, after St. Restituta of Sora, who was beheaded in the third century. Seasoned by World War I, she gained renown as an operating room nurse and anesthetist in Modling, Austria.

Guy of Pomposa? Eventually he grew weary of keeping up appearances, sold his clothing, gave the money to the poor and set out for Rome in shabby garments. He befriended the hermit Martin and later joined a community of monks at Pomposa Abbey, where he became abbot. He was much sought after as a spiritual advisor and his devotion drew many followers. Peter Damian dedicated to St. Guy his book "The Way to the Perfection of Monks. He shunned a worldly life and for the most part lived as a hermit. He is founder of the Friars Minims, an order whose name means the least of all religious.

His simple life emphasized prayer and penance; he even traveled barefoot. Francis is patron of seafarers, many of whom have attributed miracles to his Intercession. Mary of Egypt c. She then crossed the Jordan River and lived out her days as a solitary penitent. Another legend had her giving up cantor duties in a Jerusalem church to avoid temptation and do penance as a desert hermit, her long hair providing cover when her clothes rotted away.

Mary's story, which may have been conflated with that of Mary Magdalene, was widely known in the Middle Ages. Following studies at Oxford and Paris, he served as chancellor to St. Edmund at Canterbury. Ordained in France, he was elected bishop of Chichester in , but could not begin his duties for tow years, until difficulties with King Henry III were resolved. He worked hard to stem church abuses and authored the prayer that ends "May I know thee more clearly, love thee more dearly and follow thee more nearly," made famous through "Godspell.

He served as cook, but drew many visitors and supplicants with his reputation for holiness and miracles.

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Despite his illiteracy, Benedict was chosen as superior and also as novice master, before being allowed to return to his kitchen refuge. He is a patron saint of Palermo, Sicily, and of blacks in the United States. Isidore of Seville c. Nearing death, he gave away everything he had, confessed his faults to his people in church, and received Communion.

She joined the community, which ran a hospital for leprosy patients. Elected prioress about , she made known earlier visions in which Jesus told her he desired a special feast for the Blessed Sacrament. This became her mission, despite opposition; even some of her nuns doubted her and accused her of misusing funds. She was forced to leave her monastery in , and died a hermit. Her work led to the feast of the Body and Blood of Christ. After years of backing the Avignon papal claimants, Vincent withdrew his support, helping to end the papal schism that had divided the Western church.

He did intensive mission work in France, Spain and Italy, drawing huge revival-type crowds and gaining fame as a miracle worker. He died during a preaching tour of Brittany. In he helped Don Bosco found the Salesian Congregation, dedicated to practical charity and inspired by St.